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/ r. *i» 






ly. R. L. from photo 










Printed by Ballantvnb, Hanson & Co 
At the Ballantyne Prew 


P. w. 

*' Are we, then, alio to he strong hyfollowmg the 
natural fact ? Yes, assuredly" 

Val d'Arno. 


As preface I should like to say a word on the great loss to 
knowledge that comes about from our having no accessible 
collection of photographs of historical works of art. 
Books can be collected at any time, but photographs are 
now very often the only authentic records of buildings 
which have been restored out of all validity. Every year 
traveUers in out-of-the-way parts of the world, such as 
Sinai, Syria, Asia Minor and Armenia, bring back valuable 
photographic documents, but they are for the most part 
lost to science owing to there being no centre where they 
are collected. Again, during the whole of the last century 
English architects were diligently measuring or sketching 
all the mediaeval buildings in Eiux)pe, yet very few 
original collections of material for this period are to be 
found, and it is to be feared that in the majority of cases 
such records have been destroyed. May I venture to 
point out to travellers that any of our national collections 
would, I am sure, treasure such drawings and also copies 
of photographs of interesting works of art P 


For the use of drawings and other kind services I wish 
to thank Mr. T. M. Rooke, Mr. S. C. Cockerell, Mr. A. 
Christie, Mr. A. H. Powell, Mr. R. W. Schultz, Mr. H. 
Ricardo, and Mr. H. F. B. Lynch. I must also par- 
ticularly acknowledge the continuous help of E. C. L., 
especially in translating German, and in the preparation 
of the Index. 

Ill Invbrnbss Tbrracb, 

August 1904. 



Introduction i 


I. The Age of Constantine : Rome and the East . 9 
II. Constantinople^ Ravenna^ and the Age of Jus- 
tinian 32 

III. Later Byzantine, and Romanesque Origins 63 

IV. Romanesque Art in Italy 91 

V. Romanesque Art in Germany, France and 

England 120. 

VI. Of Romance Art 135 

VII. Gothic Characteristics 154. 

VIII. French Cathedrals 192 

IX. French Sculpture and Painting . . • ^^S 

X. French Masons 243 

XI. Gothic Art in England, Spain, Switzerland, 

Belgium, and Germany 262 

XII. Gothic Art in Italy 276 

Appendix 299 

Index 305 




I. Byzantine Capital from Mosque of Damascus Frontispiece 
II. Temple of Baalbec. Ceiling of Portico . Facing page 8 

III. Rome. Basilica of Sta. Sabina . . ,, 22 

IV. Ravenna. Capital bearing monogram of 

Theodoric ,,32 

V. Constantinople. Sta. Sophia. Capitals^ &c. ,, 34 

VI. Ravenna. Impost-Capital. Sixth century ,, 36 

VII. Ravenna. Impost-Capital from S. Vitale >^ 38 

VIII. Ravenna. Impost-Capital from S. Vitale y, 40 

IX. Constantinople. Sta. Sophia. The great 

order of the interior . . . ,, 42 
X. Ravenna. Mosaics of Sant' Apollinare 

Nuovo w 50 

XI. Ravenna. Mosaic portrait of Justinian . ,, 52 

XII. Ravenna. Mosaic portrait of Theodora . ,y 54 

XIII. Ravenna, Ivory Throne. Sixth century ^, 56 

XIV. Damascus. Central part of Great Mosque „ 62 
XV. Ravello. Pulpit of parcel-mosaic . . ., 72 

XVI. Borgo San Donnino .... ^> 90 
XVII. Florence. San Miniato. West front in 

187s » 98 

XVIII. Florence. The Baptistery . . . „ loo 
























Florence. Baptistery. Inlaid marble 

pavement Facing pagt I03 

Pisa. Detail of bronze doors . ,, 104 

Benevento. Detail of bronze doors. ,, 106 

Milan. Interior of Sant' Ambrogio . ,, no 

SicUy. Cloister of Monreale . . ,^ 116 

Bitonto Cathedral. Exterior gallery ,, 118 

The Gloucester candlestick, c. mo ^y 124 

Cologne. Church of the Apostles . ,, 128 
Issoire. View of church from the 

east ,, 130 

Morienval. Abbey Church, c. 1125 

before '' Restoration" . . „ 134 
Tracey-le-Val Church, c. 1130 „ 140 
Beauvais. Apse and fljdng buttresses y, 154 
Bourges. Glass. Christ of the Apo- 
calypse ,y 176 

Chartres. Glass. Figure of donor^ 

Guy de Montfort . . y, 180 
Strasbourg. The pulpitum, now 

destroyed ^^ 184 

Strasbourg. Part of west front ,, 188 

Paris. Notre Dame^ west front ,, 192 

Sens. West door . ,, 198 
Reims. Door of north transept^ 

c. 1 230-1 240 , . . , „ 206 

Bourges. West porches . . . ^, 208 

Rouen. Choir . • ^^ 210 

Rouen. Lateral door of west front . y, 212 
Chartres. Sculptures of western 

doors „ 214 

Chartres. Jambs of lefl-hand and 

central doors of north porch ,, 222 




XLIII. Chartres. Jambs of left-hand and 

central doors of south porch . . Faeingpagt 224 
XLIV. Amiens. Solomon and Saba. South 

door of west front • . . ^^ 226 
XLV. Amiens. Herod and two of the Magi. 

South door of west front • ,1 228 

XLVI. Reims. Jamb of central porch . ^^ 230 

XLVII. Reims. Joseph ^^ 232 

XLVIII. Reims. Simeon ,, 232 

XL IX. Reims. Central porch. Angel • ^, 234 

L. Auxerre. Sculptures of the west porch ,, 236 
LI. Auxerre. Sculptures of the west porch ^^ 236 
LII. Strasbourg. Central pillar in the 

south transept . . • >j 238 

LIII. Amiens. Reliefs of the Virtues and 

Vices ,,242 

LIV. Amiens. The Signs of the Zodiac and 

the labours of the year . . . ,, 244 
LV. Amiens. The Signs of the Zodiac and 

the labours of the year . • . ^, 246 
LVI. Paris. The Virgin. From north tran- 
sept door of Notre Dame . ,y 252 
LVII. Abbey of Villars. Monastic transitional 

style „ '262 

LVIII. Lausanne. South transept before 

"Restoration" . . . „ 272 

LIX. Bruges. H6tel de Ville and belfry „ 274 

LX. Bologna. Monument of Rolundino. 

c. 1300 „ 276 

LXI. Bitetto Cathedral. South Itolian work ,, 278 
LXII. Palermo. Window of S. Agostino ,, 280 
LXI II. Florence. Sculptures from the cam- 
panile ,,284 



LXIV. Florence. Sculptures from the cam- 
panile ...... Facing page 286 

LXV. Orvieto. Door jamb « Cosmati work " „ 288 
LXVI. Beauvais. House front, c. 1550 . „ 296 


riG. PAGE 

1. Pottery vessel, circa 320, in British Museun . . 3 

2. Early Christian tomb 10 

3. ^ Temple of Minerva Medica." From a drawing in 

the Soane Museum 11 

4. Late Roman building. From a drawing in the 

Soane Museum 12 

5. Plan of Early Christian basilica, Saglassos, in Asia 

Minor. After Strzygowski . -14 

6. Plan of Early church at Dodona •14 

7. Pine-cone fountain, from a Byzantine MS. 20 

8. Spandrils of arches in Sta. Sabina, Rome. From a 

drawing by Mr. A. Christie .21 

9. Plan of Sta. Constantia, Rome. From a drawing in 

the Soane Museum 23 

ID. Early Christian church, Silchester . . • ^5 

11. Early Christian church, Jataghan, Asia Minor 25 

1 2. Suggested plan of churches of the Holy Sepulchre . 26 

13. Churches of the Holy Sepulchre, from the Madeba 

mosaic 27 

14. Tomb chamber in the Rotundaof the Holy Sepulchre 29 

15. Roman temples altered into Church of SS. Cosmo 

and Damian 30 

16. Stone friezes of fourth or fifth centuiy, after 

Strzygowski 33 



17. Stone capital from Old Cairo 34 

18. Ivoxy panel in Cairo Museum 34 

19. Diagram of Syrian arch-form 35 

20. Mosaic pavement from Carthage^ in the British 

Museum 36 

21. Byzantine capital of sixth century^ in mosque of 

Kerouan 39 

22. Byzantine capital found in Rome. After Piranesi . 40 

23. Capital from church in Isauria, Asia Minor • 41 

24. Diagram of dome of St. Sergius^ Constantinople 43 

25. Plaster rib on the same dome 43 

26. Plan of Sta. Sophia^ Constantinople ... 45 

27. Approximate plan of Church of the Holy Apostles, 

Constantinople 47 

28. Plan of St. Vitale, Ravenna 51 

29. Monograms 55 

30. Basilica at Bethlehem 57 

31. Byzantine candlestick 59 

32. Diagram of lower story of palace at Mashita in Moab 6 1 

33. Plan of monastic church of Daphne^ near Athens . 69 

34. Plan of church on the island of Chios ... 69 

35. Church of the Apostles, Salonica . -7^ 

36. Plan of Church of St. Elias, Salonica ... 73 

37. Plan of Church of St. Gregory, Etschmiadsin, 

Armenia 74 

38. Plan of Cathedral of Etschmiadsin, Armenia . 75 

39. Church of Ushkal Souanetie in the Caucasus . 76 

40. Church at Anabat, Van, in Armenia . -17 

41. Diagram of Church of Vatopedi, Mount Athos 80 

42. Plan of basilica at Barkal, near Dongola 82 

43. Plan of basilica at Kef 83 

44. Plan of church at Doclea, Montenegro ... 83 

45. Plan of church at Nyssa 85 




46. Cruciform font 87 

47. (A) Plan of S. Croce Gimerina ; (B) Plan of S. Maria 

di Squillace ; (C) Its crypt .... 88 

48. Plan of destroyed Church of St. Andrea^ Rimini 89 

49. Part plan of St Mark's, Venice .... 94 

50. Haikal of church at Antinoe in Egypt . -95 

51. Sections of moulding, St. Mark's, Venice . 96 

52. Patterns from wall linings in (A) San Miniato^ 

Florence ; (B) St, Demetrius, Salonica . 98 

53. Grouped shafts^ St. Michele, Lucca .106 

54. Panel from St. Paolo, Pisa 106 

55. King David, from the Baptistery, Pisa . .107 

56. Inlaid marble pillars. St. Michele, Lucca .108 

57. Figure in mosaic. St. Ambrogio, Milan . 1 10 

58. Ribbed vaults from Church of Skripou . .112 

59. Pillar from crypt of Modena Cathedral . - ^^3 

60. Tomb of two masons 118 

61. Plan of Church of Aachen 122 

62. Plan of destroyed Church of Valenciennes • i49 

63. Plan of Church of Cistercian abbey of Chaalis 150 

64. Destroyed abbey church of St. Maiy, Soissons . 152 

65. Diagrams of vaults 155 

66. Diagrams of vaults 157 

67. Section of nave, Amiens . . . .160 

68. Plans of church at Chars, Oise . . .162 

69. Plan of £. transept and chevet, St. Quentin . .163 

70. Plan of Church of St. Yved at Braisne, near Soissons 165 

71. Plan of Church at Villeneuve-le-Vicomte . 166 

72. Plan of destroyed Church of Vaucelles . .167 

73. Plan of the Templars' chapel, Laon .168 

74. Plan of Angers Cathedral 169 

75. Section of hall of St. Martin des Champs . 170 

76. Apse windows of Auxerre 171 



77. Rose and lancets, Oiirscamp . .172 

78. Early traceried windows, Reims . . .172 

79. Early traeeried windows, Amiens . . • ^73 

80. Rose window of N. transept, CMlons . - 1 74 

81. Rose window, Notre Dame, Paris . -175 

82. Triforium windows, Amiens 176 

83. Stained glass from S. transept, Chartres . -177 
84a. Upper part of window called Notre Dame de la 

Belle Verri^re, Chartres 178 

846. Lower part of same window -179 

85. Portion of window from Laon .181 

86. French Gothic mouldings 186 

87. Gothic mouldings from Normandy, and base from 

Noyon ........ 187 

88. Ground plan of Laon Cathedral . .196 

89. Sketch of one of the W. towers, Laon . -197 

90. Plan of Notre Dame, Paris 200 

91. Notre Dame, Sainte Chapelle and clock- tower of 

palace. From Froissart MS . . .202 

92. West front, Chartres 205 

93. Tomb of Louis, eldest son of St. Louis, at St. Denis 217 
94 and 95. Effigies called Childebert I and Clovis IL 

St. Denis 220 

96 and 97. Effigies called Louis III. and Carloman. St. 

Denis 224 

98 and 99. Effigies of Philippe III. and Jean II. St. 

Denis 227 

100 and loi. Effigies of Robert and Marguerite 

d'Artois. St. Denis 233 

102. Painting a statue. From a MS 235 

103. Daughters of Sion. From stained glass at Orbais 236 

104. Moses. From stained glass at Orbais 

105. Study by V. de Honnecourt , 




1 06. Portrait from grave-slab^ CMlons-sur-Mame. . 239 

107. Portraits from grave-slabj CiiAlons-sur-Mame 240 

108. Hugh Libergiers^ master mason of Reims . .246 

109. Drawing by V. de Honnecourt of apseofCambrai 249 
no. Eudes de Montreuil, master mason of Paris . .252 

111. Master mason of apse of St. Ouen . -254 

112. Gravestone of a master mason^ Cluny Museum . 256 

113. From gravestone of a master mason at Caudebec . 257 

1 14. Seal of master mason of Strasbourg . .258 

115. From stained glass at Chartres . . -259 

116. (A) Original design for W. front of thirteenth 
century church. (B) Suggested interpretation . 260 

117. Inscription in honour of the master mason of Notre 

Dame 261 

118. Suggested original form of £. end of Lincoln 

Cathedral 268 

119. Ground plan of Lausanne Cathedral . .272 

120. Early altar front. Coire 273 

121. Detail of altar front. Coire 274 

122. Shrine and altar formerly in S. Maria Maggiore^ 

Rome 2S3 

123. City gate and Baptistery, Florence. From a MS. 288 

124. From stone slab in the Cluny Museum .296 


'*The knife is in the meat, and the drink is in the 
horn, and there's revelry in the hall^ aod except for 
a craftsman who brings his craft the gate will not be 
open to-night. ' ' — Mabinogion, 

Art is man^s thought expressed in his handwork. The 
course of art has left a great series of documents for the 
history of civilisation. Moreover, the quality, importance, 
and number of monuments are likely to vary according to 
the greatness of the periods in which they were produced. 
They are witnesses which cannot lie ; they are, indeed, not 
so much records of the past as samples of actual history. 
Westminster Abbey is a great piece of the middle of the 
thirteenth century still projecting above the later strata of 
English life and effort. Periods of art are those in which 
a process of development has been set up by which certain 
ideals have been followed for generations and centuries, so 
that possibilities of thought-expression have been con- 
tinuously explored and built up. In such great art are 
crystallised the aspiration and consciousness of an era of 
national life. 

A wide view of history makes it evident that periods of 
art have coincided witJi the crests of general development. 
Where we have no other chronicle it is safe to argue fix>m 


the existence of a school of art to a period of culture ot 
which it was the outcome. For instance, we know nothing 
of the people who built Stonehenge but Stonehenge itself; 
we know little of the Myoenieans save the wonderful 
remnants of their work-civilisation ; and in the long chain 
of Egyptian culture undulations in the state of society 
may be directly inferred from the index curve of art, and 
we know that the Great Period synchronised with the 
reigns of Seti and Rameses. It was Pericles who raised 
the Parthenon, and Augustus who gave his name to the 
great Roman epoch. Old St. Peter's stood for the first 
power of the Christian Empire, and Sta. Sophia for its 
Eastern culmination under Justinian. The Dom of Aachen 
marks the rule of Charlemagne ; Jumi^es and Durham 
witness to the might of the Normans; the building of 
Notre Dame coincides with the rising power of Philip 
Augustus; and oiu* own English art came to its crown 
with Edward I. 

It would be of interest to trace the movements of the 
art centre of Western civilisation from generation to 
generation and to mark out the forces radiating from the 
several points by a sort of artistic meteorology. 

Every school of art is the product of antecedent schools 
plus the national equation of the moment, and these two 
factors may either be found as almost distinct and existing 
side by side, or they may run together into a new com- 
pound form. So true is this that the history of art may 
be compared to chemical analysis ; and one of the offices 
of its historian is to distinguish and weigh the component 
parts of any given example. If his tests were rigorous 
enough he should be able to trace every element. 


At the time when our story b^ns Roman art had long 
been subjected to Greek influence, and the centre of 
development was in the east of the Empire rather than in 
Rome. Moreover, the needs and desires of the Church, 
itself of the East, soon further sweetened and freed official 

Fig. I. Pottery vessel in the British Museum. A figure of Christ 
with cruciform nimbus between profiles of Constantine and Faustina, 
who are named in the surrounding inscription : c. 320, probably of 
Syrian or Egyptian origin. 

Roman art into Early Christian art, which quickly spread 
over an enormous field — over S3rria, Asia Minor, Arabia, 
Armenia, North Africa, and Egypt, where early churches 
are found far up the Nile beyond Khartum. 

After the fourth century Constantinople became the 
artistic capital of the world, but only maintained its pre- 
eminence until the rise of the Mohammedan Empire, when 


the vital centre moved eastward. The early buildings 
of the Arab conquerors, erected for them by Christian 
builders in a style at first Byzantine, or more properly 
what we might call Hellenesque,* cuid then slowly changing 
into more Eastern complexions, form one high peak in 
the chain of art. The Dome of the Rock, the Aksa in 
Jerusalem, and the Mosque of Damascus, are more ener^ 
getic and clearer in expression than any other architecture 
of the time. The Arab-Byzantine school attained enor- 
mous power, and, indeed, this Eastern wave of Hel- 
lenesque art is not yet exhausted in Persia and India. 

To come back to Rome and the West. During the 
years of the Gothic wars and the folk-migrations art 
must have been almost wholly eradicated, and such as 
remained was compounded of the dying classical tradition, 
of barbarism, and of the fresh influences of the Christian 

When Theodoric set up a stable society, with its centre 
at Ravenna, he borrowed from the art of Constantinople, 
and not long afterwards Ravenna became the seat of an 
exarch representing the Eastern Empire. From this time 
the Eastern element was for centuries the most vital one 
in Italy and the West. 

When Charlemagne, having foimded the new Empire, 

built his monumental church at Aachen at the end of the 

eighth century, he obtained marbles and mosaics from 

Ravenna, and it was planned like San Vitale in that city 

and other churches further east. The influences emanating 

* By '* Hellenesque " I mean most simply the Oriental Christian 
styles, including Byzantine. It was developed out of the Hellenistic 
art as Romanesque is generally supposed to have developed from 


from the Carlovingian centre in turn affected the whole 
West, After the division of the Prankish Empire followed 
a period of disintegration and stagnation, until, with 
Otto II., a time of renewed energy began, and from this 
we may date the origin of the great Rhenish school. 

In the tenth and eleventh centuries several forms of 
what is usually called Romanesque art arose in various 
States in North Italy and France. Of these States, one of 
the most powerful was Normandy, and here was early 
developed a great branch of Romanesque art which was 
soon carried into England. 

During all this time further waves of Oriental impulse 
passed westward, especially over the southern parts of Italy 
and France; and with the Norman conquest of Sicily a mixed 
style arose there out of northern and eastern elements. 

In the middle of the twelfth century the germ of modem 
France, the small royal domain, began to wax in power, 
and at this moment its local phase of Romanesque 
began to change and speedily matiued into Gothic, a noble 
and adventurous style which formed the western efflores- 
cence of art in the CJhristian era. 

In briefest summary, there are two chief styles of 
mediaeval art to be dealt with in these pages — ^the east- 
ward culmination, or the Byzantine school, and the 
western, or Gothic. To recapitulate from this point of 
view. The long and eventful period, the thousand years 
from A.D. 300 to 1300, from Roman to Renaissance art, is 
yet a perfectly organic one. It begins with a change in 
the spirit of Classical art, produced by Oriental mysticism 
and Christianity, which profoundly affected the subject- 


matter dealt with, and supplied an epic interest and human 
meaning which had been so markedly lacking in it. This 
soon brought forth the first great mediaeval school in 
the East. After the mighty disturbances in the West, 
when Groths, Franks, Lombards, and the rest flowed in 
over the Roman Empire, when western society began once 
more to solidify, to wake to national consciousness, and to 
desire the works of peace, it was natural that men should 
turn towards the great artistic capitals of the East, and 
absorb what they might of the traditions which had in 
them been preserved. The populations of Western 
Europe had in different measures been freed and re- 
barbarised, and the arts they now developed witness per- 
fectly both as to the derived seed and the new ground in 
which it was planted. 

In France, as I have said, the diverse elements again ran 
together in the twelfth century and formed the western 
mediaeval school known as Gothic, an art perfectly clear, 
energetic, and homogeneous, in which the sculpture and 
painting were as noble as the structures were direct and 
daring. This French-Grothic school was widely spread 
over Western Eiurope by the middle of the thirteenth 
century, and was even carried into Italy, where it influenced 
the native Byzanto-Romanesque, and formed many ex- 
quisite mixed styles by the time that the millennium of 
mediaeval art drew towards its end. 

In Italy, however, Grothic art was never fully assimilated, 
and it seems probable that it was even a conscious reaction 
of artistic patriotism against this Northern art that led to 
the endeavour to bring back the past of Rome, and 
initiated that substitution of scholarship for experiment the 


which is the central principle of the Renaissance architecture 
by which Roman authority once again conquered the world. 

Of the causes which produced the phenomena of 
Mediaeval Art, a large share is, as will be shown, to be 
assigned to Eastern forces acting on the West. A 
thousand years of receptivity seems to have come to a 
close with the Renaissance. 

The Gothic, indeed, stands out as exclusively a western 
style, but even this came as a short summer time, fulfilling 
a long growth from widespreading roots, nourished by the 
rivers of Eden. There is much more of the East in 
Grothic, in its structure and fibre, than is outwardly 
visible. To account for Gothic we have to account for its 
historic basis and for the whole atmosphere of mysticism, 
chivalry, and work-enthusiasm, with all the institutions, 
monastic, romantic, and social, which formed its environ- 
ment. Looking at the slow preparation for, and the 
rapid passing of, western gothic art, and considering the 
sudden and entire breakdown of its traditions and ideals, I 
am drawn to the conclusion that the causes which 
underlay this art are to be found in a long infiltration of 
the Oriental spirit to the point of saturation, and then the 
bursting out of the new, yet old, energy shaped to 
northern requirements. 

I must not here bring forward particular instances to 
illustrate and fortify this hypothesis, but I may suggest 
that it will appear more pi*obable when we survey 
mediaeval art as a whole, both historically and in its 
geographical distribution.* 

* On eastern influence in western art see Byx, Zeits. 1903 and Amm- 
can Jour, of Archaology^ 1894 and 1895. 


It is not generally realised in how large a degree the 
Persian, Egypto-Saracenic, and Moorish forms are 
members of one common art with Gothic and developed 
side by side with it. Grothic art, however, as it pro- 
gressed broke away more and more from the body of 
ancient customs. The history of art between the Byzantine 
era and the present day, as can be seen with least con- 
fusion in the comparatively free ai*ts of painting and 
sculpture, is the history of a transition from common 
tradition to individualist realism. Architecture has fol- 
lowed the same course, although the issue in regard to it 
has been more obscured and blocked by many attempted 
revivals of old forms. 







The mighty Empire of Rome at the time when our 
inquiry b^ins was ahready showing signs of breaking up 
into three main divisions — the East, where the empire 
was continued for more than a thousand years; Italy, 
where the Pope once more built up a great centralised 
power ; and the Western Provinces, over which flowed the 
Grermanic invasions. Recent writers give a preponderating 
influence in the transformation of classic art into Christian, 
to such late Greek centres of culture as Alexandria, 
Antioch, and Ephesus, rather than to Rome. Dr. 
Strzygowski has presented the evidence for this view in a 
series of learned works. 

Rome itself, long before the Edict of Milan in favotir 
of Christianity in 313, had been subject to Eastern in- 
fluences ; indeed, the removal of Constantine^s capital to 
Byzantium a few years later, in 330, can only have been 
the result of great causes, long in action, which showed 
that the true centre of the empire's life was nearer to the 
East. There is a great diflerence between earlier and later 
Roman art, which is probably to be accounted for by 
increasing Oriental influence. This is particularly marked 



in the Palace built directly after 300 at Spalato by Diocle- 
tian, which is distinctly Syrian. Even the colonnaded 
streets of Damascus and Gerash are repeated in this vast 
palace enclosure, and the architectural details resemble 
work at Baalbec and Palmyra. 
The great monument which best marks the change of 

FiO. 2. Early Christian tomb front. 

style, the Pantheon, was built more than 150 years before 
this time by Hadrian,* and the interval is filled by some 
extremely interesting buildings, of which the so-called 
Temple of Minerva Medica is a good example. This 
building is properly a Nymphseum, erected about 260. 
There is a valuable unpublished plan of it made about 
15 1 2 by Conero in his folio of original drawings now in the 
Soane Museum. The central chamber followed the most 
perfect type that can be devised ; the area being enlarged, 
and, at the same time, the construction strengthened, 

* The vast Imperial Villa at Tiroli, recently well described in 
Gasman's fine volume, and which also dates from this time, shows 
how free and masterly was late Roman construction. 


by a series of domed recesses. These rise only to the 
half height, above which the thinner wall of the central 
chamber is supported by buttresses. The disposition of 
the lateral buildings given on the plan {see Fig. 3), 
which have now entirely disappeared, shows that the prin- 

Fig. 3. " Temple of Minerva Medica." Rome, from an original 
dxawing in the Soane Museam, made c, i5za 

ciple of supporting a high central dome by lower vaults 
was fully understood. The walls of the interior were 
once covered with slabs of porphyry and marble, and its 
dome was encrusted with shells and glass enamels.* From 

* I find an interesting early vUw of this building about 1500 in the 
Italian engraving of Leda by the Master I. B. in the British Museum. 


the same source is taken Fig. 4, a remarkable octagonal 
plan, which must be late Roman, although I cannot 
identify it. 

In this later Roman school, building was carried to as 
high a point as it has ever reached. Construction was 
experimental, yet masterful, and all manner of exquisite 

Fig. 4. Late Roman building, from a drawing in the Soane 
Museum, made e, Z5za 

materials like coloured marbles, glass mosaic, and gilded 
bronze, were used in never equalled profusion, with fine 
freedom of handling, and often with excellent, if some- 
what redundant, taste. Yet one thing it lacked to make 
it that still nobler thing — a great school of architecture. 
The elements of sculpture and painting were merely formal, 
and in no way epic; they were added to a building as 
adornments, and were not the very soul of its life. The 


times in history when building, sculpture, painting, and 
other arts have been perfectly co-ordinated into a higher 
unity have, indeed, been very few ; but if we are to dis- 
tinguish between fine building and noble architecture this 
organic unity must be the test. 

In the Constantinian epoch there were two schools of 
^^ decorative ^ art in Rome — one, splendid, academical, and, 
on its expressive side, formular ; the other, the humble 
art of an Eastern sect hidden in the catacombs — a living 
art for the dead. Not only did the two schools respond 
to two classes of demand, but the artists must have 
belonged to entirely different camps. On the one side 
they were accurate, cultured, official; on the other, 
simple, and almost amateur, yet their work was pene- 
trated with ideas and full of emotion. The bringing of 
these elements together formed Constantinian art in 

It is a pity that Roman buildings have been examined 
under the guidance of the text of Vitruvius by men who 
looked for " Orders of Architecture " rather than for living 
experiment in building. And a great advance towards 
a reasonable view of Roman art has been made by 
Choisy^s studies of the principles of Roman construc- 
tion. We further need above all a scientific study of 
Roman planning, abundant materials for which have 
now been collected. 

Many of the links in the development and transforma* 
tion of ancient art must have been irrecoverably lost 
by the destruction of Eastern cities. 

* On the Catacombs, see Wilpert's fine book. 


For instance, Maundrell, in 1699, saw a remarkable 
building at Corns, near the borders of Mesopotamia, 
which he describes as ^'a noble old monument, six- 
square, which opens at six windows above, and is covered 
with a pyramidical cupola. In each angle within is a 
pillar of the Corinthian order of one stone, and there is 
a fine architrave all round just under the cupola, having 



6. Early 

Church at 

Dodona, with transverse triple 


Fig. 5. Early Christian 
Basilica, Saglassos, in Asia 
Minor. After Strzygowski. 

had heads of oxen carved on it, and it ends at top with a 
large capital of the Corinthian order/ 

Especially significant in regard to painting are the 
wax painted portraits from Egypt, some of which are 
shown in the vestibule of the National Gallery. They 
furnish the very facial types which are afterwards found 
in the catacombs and in the mosaics. 

In Syria the transition from classic art to Christian can 
be traced through a large series of dated monuments, as is 
shown by the recently published results of the American 


Archaeological Expedition. And it appears that from 
first to last this EcLstem art was Hellenistic rather than 
Roman. I do not suppose that there were any structural 
or decorative methods which were not absorbed by the 
artists of the Empire; Roman art, like its culture 
generally, was syncretic. Some of the decorative pro- 
cesses largely used in Christian art, such, for instance, as 
incrustation of wall surfaces with a veneer of precious 
marbles, seem especially to have been delighted in at the 
capital. But the informing spirit of architecture, and the 
way of looking at ornament, was very different in Rome 
from what it was in the East. The characteristics of 
Eastern art throughout are greater freedom in structure, 
and closer reference to nature with constant variety in 
ornamentation. We already have pure naturalism aimed 
at in the Assyrian reliefs. The fine Hellenistic sarco- 
phagus from Sidou called ^^ Alexander's ^ has a most 
exquisite meander of vine carved on its frieze. In the 
series of monuments represented by the Golden Gate 
at Damascus, and the ruins of Palmyra and Baal bee, 
besides the unfettered way in which the so-called " order " 
is treated, the carved ornamentation shows a strong 
life, full of imagination, executed in a forceful way. 
At Baalbec the frieze is practically suppressed ; it has 
become a band of carving lying flush with the outer 
member of the architrave, and under-carved so that the 
light falls through it as through a trellis. The 
^^ palmette ^ ornament of the cyma is continually changing 
in pattern, and even the ^^ egg and tongue ^ moulding is 
made interesting frx>m point to point by changing 
patterns in the alternating spaces. (Compare Plate 2.) 


In these, emd still more markedly in several Hellenistic 
sarcophagi, is to be seen a new principle in regard to 
sculptured ornament, a principle that becomes typical in 
Byzantine carvings, whereby the sunk portion is not re- 
garded as a mere background, but as an alternating form. 
By this method sharply-defined shadows seem to be inlaid 
into the general shape of the member decorated. In the 
West the Palace of Diocletian at Spalato is certainly an 
offshoot of this school of art 

Even the Basjlican church must have been developed 
outside of Rome. As early as 325, as an inscription 
shows, was built the little church of Orl^ansville in Algeria. 
Strzygowski thinks that some of the many churches found 
in Asia Minor may date from pre-Constantinian days. 
(Fig. 5 is of uncertain date.) The church at Nicomedia, 
destroyed in the Diocletian persecution, must have been 
built before the end of the third century. A description 
of what was probably a church of the second century is 
given in a Syriac MS., the Tesiamenium Domini* And 
still earlier the vision of the Heavenly Temple in the 
Book of Revelation must be based on the form of 
churches built by men. 

The type of the primitive church was formed by the 
composition of many elements. The apsidal presbytery 
with its altar is so clearly in direct correspondence with 
the rite there celebrated that it is unnecessary to look for 
any other origin. It resembles the tricUnia of private 
houses ; an alternative derivation has been suggested frt)m 
the little memorial schoke built above the entrances to 
the catacombs in Rome, some of which have tri-apsidal 
* Rev. Art Cr4t. 1899, p. 515. 


terminatioiis, like the church shown in Fig. 6.* But it is 
to be observed that memorial feasts were held in these 
buildings, and it is most probable that they were inde- 
pendently derived from the great apsidal dining-halls. 
This, therefore, furnishes some confirmation of the first 
theory, and in any case these little buildings are probably 
too local and too late to have influenced the first churches. 
Certain traditions of temple-planning were also carried 
forward — ^notably in the orientation of churches, which, 
like temples, are built on an east to west axis, and the 
earlier churches had their great doors to the east like the 
temples, and in exact opposition to the later custom of 
having the doors to the west. The Atrium may also 
come from the forecourt of temples. It was natural when 
great churches were built for a large assemblage of people 
that, having to fulfil purposes analogous to those of the 
basilicas of justice, they should take over from them the 
colonnade and roof system as a current tradition of 
building. It is not that the church Altered into the 
justice halls, but similar needs of covering large spaces 
brought about similar results. The word Basilica was in 
use for a church in Constantinian days, but it seems to 
have been applied to any form of church. 

We will now turn to the first Christian churches of 

Constantine, it is said, at the suggestion of Bishop 
(Pope) Sylvester, built the basilica of St. Peter, over 
the tomb of the Apostle, whose body he placed in a 

* Churches of this form are not known in Rome. The finest are the 
White and Red Monasteries in Egypt, both of the fifth century. 


1 8 ST. PETER'S 

chest of bronze.* Directly above it stood the porphyry 
columns of the altar dborium, and he placed between 
the apse and the body of the church some beautiful 
columns carved with t^idrils of vine, which he brought 
from Greece. The church was a vast structure, having 
five avenues between colonnades, crossed at the end by the 
transept, from the centre of which, behind the beautiful 
vine columns, opened the apsidal presbytery, raised high 
above a crypt, and approached by a flight of steps on 
either hand. Around the apse were the presbytery seats 
in raised banks, the PontiflTs throne being against the 
curved wall on the axis. Under the altar was the 
confemo of St. Peter, — ^the crypt which contained the 
tomb of the Apostle, — which was approached by a central 
flight of steps in front of the altar. Above the vine 
columns was an entablature which was enriched with 
plates of silver and supported candelabra. The nave was 
divided from the transept by the ^^ triumphal arch,^ which 
was a little later covered with mosaic showing St. Peter 
presenting Constantine to Christ, to whom he was offering 
a model of the church. Across the arch was another 
beam, the head of the arch being filled with lattice- 
work, against which were attached a cross and two 
gigantic keys. This beam corresponds to the Rood beam 
in later Western churches. Nearly under it stood the 
ambo, in front of which, in the nave, a space was 
enclosed by low screens for the choir of the singers. The 
walls of the nave above the architraves supported by 

* As the lateral walls of the Basilica stand on old Roman founda- 
tions, that the Apostle's body should have been found thus con- 
veniently laced is nearly a topographical impossibility. 


the colonnades were entirely painted over with histories 
from the Bible. On the north side, between the windows, 
were Prophets, and beneath, panel pictures beginning 
with the animals entering the Ark. Opposite, to the 
south, the pictures were firom the New Testament. The 
roof, of low pitch, showed its tie-beams and other 
timbers. In the eastern JrorU of the church opened 
five entrances; the great central doors being adorned 
with silver, on which were figures of St. Peter and St. 
PauL A forecourt, or atrium, was surrounded by colon- 
nades, in the midst of which was a fountain in the form 
of an enormous gilt bronze pine-cone throwing threads of 
water from multitudinous holes, and canopied over by 
bronze lattice-work, on which perched beautiful bronze 
peacocks. The outer gates of the atrium were adorned 
with mosaic. The facade of the church, rising above 
the cloister colonnade, was also covered with mosaic, 
where three ranges of figures portrayed Christ between 
the Virgin and St. Peter, with the four symbolic beasts, 
then the Evangelists themselves, with their books, and 
below the twenty-four elders putting off their crowns. 
This fa9ade, with its mosaic, is shown in an eleventh- 
century manuscript preserved at Eton. The great 
chiuxdi was but one building of a group. On the south 
side rose two circular Imperial tomb chapels, and on 
the north side was the palace of the Popes — a castle 
surrounded with walls and strong towers. 

The solemn beauty of St. Peter^s with its gable-mosaic 
shining in the morning sim as the people passed through 
the fountain court, and assembled for the early service in 
its dim, long-avenued interior, may hardly be imagined. 


Of all these things only the pine-oone, two of the 
peacocks of the fountain, and several of the vine-columns 
which stood before the presbytery, remain to us. These 
last, according to one story, were said to have come from 
Solomon's Temple, and they are figured in RaphaePs 
celebrated cartoon of the Beautiful Gate 
of the Temple. The pine-cone is antique, 
and bears the signature of P. Cmdus 
SalviiMj it has recently been shown that 
it was probably only placed in the "Para- 
dise* of St. Peter's about iioo, but 
Strssygowski says that a pine-cone was 
the traditional form for Church fountains. 
Compare Fig. 7 from a Byzantine MS. 
The decorations of St. Peter's were 
mostly later than the structure, and 
were added from time to time through 
the ages. 

Fig. 7. Pine-cone 
fountain from a By- 
zantine MS. Constantine's basilica of St. Paul's out- 
side the walls was quite a small church, 
the plan of which has been recovered by excavation. It 
was rebuilt fit)m 386 as a large five-aisled basilica, facing 
in the other direction. 

At St. John Lateran only the Baptistery seems to have 
been built by Constantine, and of this a portion remains. 

We cannot stay to refer to any more of the basilican 
churches in Rome, save only to say that Sta. Sabina, 
built about 430, is probably the most complete and 
unharmed, and contains many early treasures in its 
mosaics, carved doors and marble incrustations. For 

Fig. 8. Marble plating from spandrils of arches in Sta. Sabina, Rome, 
from a dr&wing by Mr. A. Christie. 


these last see Fig. 8 ; this method of plating surfaces 
with precious materials fitted in patterns was much used 
in both late Roman and Byzantine work, and it seems 
to have been a Roman gift to Christian art (PI. 3). 

A few steps from the early basilica of Sta. Agnese 
outside the walls is the best preserved of all of Con- 
stantine^s churches, the circular building which it is said 
contained the tomb of Sta. Constantia. A central dome 
rises over a ring of arcades, the columns of which are 
coupled perpendicularly to the circumference. I give an 
early plan (Fig. 9) of this interesting building made by 
Conero about 1512. It gives no sign of the exterior 
circular colonnade shown by Dehio, Eraus, and others. 
To the exterior it has a cornice of plastered brick 
with marble modillions, and the walls were probably 

The mosaics of the central dome have been destroyed, 
but there was once a Baptism figured here. ^* This fact 
and the discovery of circular walls beneath the middle of 
the rotunda have suggested that this mausoleum might 
have served for a Baptistery."* Now our own Bede says 
that Constantine built a basilica to the Holy Martyr 
Agnes at the request of his daughter, ** and a Baptistery 
in the same place where his sister Constantia and her 
daughter were baptized." 

The vaults of the circular able are covered with most 
interesting fourth-century marble mosaics representing 
intertwined vines with " Putti " busy with the labours of 
the vintage. Around the lower part of the dome the 
mosaics represented a river in which cupids fished and 
* Marucchl, 1902* 








played with water-fowl in a late classical taste, but on it, 
opposite the door, floated the Ship of the Church. Above 
this river rose a sort of pergola of conventional foliage set 

Fio. 9. Plan of Sta. Coostantia, Rome, from a drawing in the 
Soane Museum, made c, 1512. 

in which were subjects from the old and new Laws. In the 
thick outer wall there is an altar recess opposite the door, 
and apsidal niches to the north and south. Before the altar 
recess a smcdl domical compartment interrupts the con- 


tinuous vault of the aisle. It and the side apses were 
adorned with subjects in mosaic, and the two side ones 
still remain. In the small dome, Christ, the Apostles, and 
two women in white robes, were represented in one group, 
and opposite, the Lamb and the sheep in front of the 
Heavenly Jerusalem. In the semi-dome, above the apse 
on the right, is represented Moses receiving the Old Law, 
while opposite, on the left, Christ gives the New Law to 
St. Peter, accompanied by St. Paul. The surfaces of the 
walls were richly encrusted with marble, the arches were 
plated with marble, and around the tambour of the dome 
ran a band of opus sectiley representing, by a juxtaposition 
of different marbles, a cornice. The mosaics of the small 
apses are so different in spirit from the rest that for long 
it was thought that they must be considerably later, 
possibly of the sixth century ; but there is now a general 
consensus that they are contemporary with the rest. In 
the two apses is already found a mystic sentiment with a 
developed code of symbolism. Christ giving the Law 
stands on the mount above the four gushing streams, at 
His feet are the faithful sheep, and right and left appear 
Bethlehem and Jerusalem. He gives a roll inscribed, 
^DOMiNUs PACEM DAT.^ In the other mosaic, God the 
Father is seated on an Orb, and the field is filled by great 
palm-trees. In the destroyed mosaic of the little cupola 
the two women clothed in white robes were the Churches 
of the Gentiles and of the Circumcision. In the magnifi- 
cent apse-mosaic of Sta. Pudentiana similar figures appear, 
and in Sta. Sabina (c. 430), two figures which stand 
on either hand of a dedicatory inscription are named 




Of the time directly following the first age of church 
building there must be scores of ruins and foundations, 
the little church not long ago discovered at Silchester in 
the distant province of Britain being one. Fig. 10 is 

Fig. 10. Early Christian Church 
at Silchester. 

Fig. XI. Early Christian Church, 
Jataghan, Asia Minor. 

its plan; Fig. 11 from Asia Minor may be compared 
with it. 

All knowledge of Constantine^s churches in his new 
capital on the Bosphorus is lost, and those which were 
built by his direction over the holy sites in and about 
Jerusalem are little more than a memory. 

His buildings at the Holy Sepulchre were erected in ten 
years from 326. They have suffered so much from 
violence and change that little of the original work 


remains. The rock sepulchre, however, is still partly 
surrounded by an arcade and a wall which every one admits 
represents the Constantinian work, and this stands to the 
west of more recent buildings. The three niches in the 
circular wall may be compared with those of Sta. Con- 
stantia above, and with St. Theodore, also in Rome. 
Although so early it seems to me that in all these cases 

Fig. X2. Suggested plan of the Churches of the Holy Sepulchre, 
Jerusalem, as built by Constantine. 

the intention was to give something of the cross form to 
these circular buildings. Compare the cruciform nimbus 
of Fig. I. Eusebius says that Constantine (i) decorated 
the Holy Tomb as the head of aU, with columns and 
ornaments. (2) Then came a large space with porticoes 
on three sides. (3) The side which faced the grotto, 
that is, the east side, was formed by the basilica, 
large and high ; the interior was encrusted with coloured 
marbles, the ceiling was carved and gilded, and the roof was 
covered with lead. (4) Along all the length of the basilica 
were two colonnades on each side, the first rows, columns, 
and those behind, square pillars; three doors opened to 
the east. (5) Opposite the doors in the end of the basilica 
was the hemisphere, the head ofaU^ which rose as high as 



the roof of the church, and was surrounded by twelve 
columns, the nmnber of the Apostles, the summits of which 
were ornamented with great bowls of silver offered by the 
Emperor to his God. (6) Then, 
before the entrance of the Temple, 
was an atrium, surroimded by 
porticoes with a fore-gate against 
the public street. 

A large body of commentary 
on the text (of which this is a 
summary) exists, the most recent 
contribution being an accurate 
survey of all the existing build- 
ings either above or below the 
surface, by Mommert; and criti- 
cisms by Strzygowski on the re- 
construction proposed by the 
former. Mommert substantially 
follows De Vogii^ in understanding 
that practically one large building 
is meant, the open space being 
directly above the rock sepulchre. 
His critic, however, separates the 
parts into a rotunda, an inter- 
mediate court, and a basilica, but 

does not work the scheme out with any detaiL Arculph, in 
the seventh centiuy, as is well known, left a rough plan 
showing a similar arrangement ; but it has been supposed 
that, as Constantine^s buildings had been more or less 
destroyed by the Persians in the meantime, this need not 
represent the original disposition. The account, however, 

Fig. 13. The Churches of 
the Holy Sepulchre, from the 
Madeba mofiaic. 


given of the original buildings by St. Silvia clearly shows 
that the ** Resurrection ^ (the Holy Sepulchre) was sepa- 
rated from the " Great Church'' by a court (see Fig. 12). 

It has been assumed, I think by all writers, that 
Eusebius's ^* hemi-sphere " was the apse of the Basilica, but 
it was pointed out to me by my friend, Harold Swainson, 
that the word *^ hemisphere " is used by the Silentiary for 
the dome of Sta. Sophia, Constantinople, and also by 
Agathias and Evagrius ; and it must be supposed that the 
same word here has the same meaning. Now, if we follow 
again the clauses of the description, it seems possible that 
Eusebius, having described the interior of the Basilica and 
reached the three eastern doors, turns back again to the 
^^ head of all,'* that is, the Rotunda of the Resurrection, 
where was, he says, this hemi-sphere. Moreover, it was 
surrounded by the twelve columns bearing silver bowls, 
"offered by the Emperor to his God," which might 
well be understood to form an inner enclosure to the 
Tomb itself; such an enclosure as was customary in circular 
churches. For instance, the central point of the Church 
of the Ascension was, says Arculph, surrounded by a 
circular bronze screen as high as a man, having a great 
lamp hanging over it. The silver bowls on the twelve 
columns mentioned above may very likely have been for 
lamps. St. Silvia, speaking of the services in the Anas- 
tasis, tells us that the Bishop withdrew " within the rails " 
or " within the chancels." From the Breviary, it appears 
that the marble pillars and silver bowls were in the Basi- 
lica, and if this is accepted the evidence is best satisfied by 
supposing that the apse was covered by a domey half of 
which r^ted on the apse wall, and the other half on 



arches and piers, or it might be something like the Church 
at Spoleto, but the Breviary may copy Eusebius. 

Strzygowski shows that the b^tutiful sculptured cornices 
of the south wall of the present buildings are Constantinian, 
and he believes that tiie wall 
which they adorn is also 
original. It is true that the 
cornices fit perfectly to the 
masonry — ^but so, apparently, 
do the Romanesque doors and 
windows, and the antiquity of 
the wall does not seem proved. 
As to the entrance doors fSEtc- 
ing the east, there does not 
seem to be any doubt ; a rough 
representation of the buildings 
was not long ago found on a 
mosaic floor at Madeba (Fig. 
^3)9 which shows the three 
doors, a plain roof, and a 
rotunda appearing behind. 
Some remnants of the eastern 
portico seem stiU to exist. 

One of the best restorations 
which have been made is that given in the Quarterly Review 
for 1899. One point that Strzygowski seems to have over- 
looked in his plan* is that the intermediate court must have 
been large enough to contain the supposed site of Golgotha, 
as we learn from St. Silvia, and as Arculph shows. The 
original form of the central sepulchre proper as adorned 
* See *' Orient oder Rom/* 

Fig. 14. The Tomb chamber 
in the Rotunda of the Holy 
Sepulchre, from a fifth century 
ivory at the British Museum. 



by Constantine is shown to us on several early ivories, 
probably the best of which is one of the fifth century 
in the British Museum {see Fig. 14). It consisted of 

a chamber, with a dome above, 
following the tradition of such 
a tomb as that called Absalom^s 
at Jerusalem. 

Of the life which animated 
the Church of the Holy Sepul- 
chre, the pilgrim, St. Silvia, 
gives a most lively and detailed 
account as she follows day by 
day the processions and services 
of an Easter week in the fifth 
century. "Every day before 
cock-crow all the doors of the 
Anastasis are opened, and from 
that hour to daybreak hymns 
and antiphons are sung.^ 

A great number of temples 
were transformed intochurches. 
The Parthenon itself became 
a church and at Baalbec a fine 
basilica was built in the 
courtyard of the temple. The 
Pantheon was consecrated in the seventh century. 
Another interesting Roman example is the round 
temple of Romulus, built c. 312, which together with 
the adjoining temphim eacrae urbis, built in a.d. 78, 
became, c. 530, the church of SS. Cosmo and Damian. A 

Fig. 15. Roman temples altered 
into the church of SS. Cosmo and 
Damian in the sixth century. 


drawing by Conero in the Soane Museum best preserves 
the form of the church. A door was cut between the 
round and oblong temples, and the latter was sub-divided 
by a wall bent into an apse which was pierced by three 
openings {see Fig. 15). A third remarkable church in 
Rome, San Stefano Rotunda, is held by several writers to 
have been a Roman Macellum, or Market Hall. It has 
existed as a church since the fifth century. One of the 
noblest of churches in scale and form is San Lorenzo, 
Milan, of which the origin is still uncertain. Of recent 
writers Dehio and also Kraus consider it to have been a 
civic building, while Strzygowski holds that it is an 
Ambrosian church. The church certainly stands in 
direct relation to the magnificent portico, and the plan 
resembles a hall in Hadrian^s villa. On the other hand, 
its plan is cruciform, and has a good deal of likeness to 
that of the great mosque at Adrianople — ^which Salzenberg 
and Choisy take to have been an early church — and to the 
seventh century Armenian church of St. Gregory recently 
discovered at Etschmiadsin.* 

Altogether the late Roman and Early Christian schools 
are of great importance, and in building especially lie very 
close to a theoretical central stem of architecture from 
which the more specialised schools have diverged. The 
freedom of late Roman building-art is hardly yet fully 
recognised : even the pointed arch was made use of.f 

• Stt Fig. 37. 

t See the Bridge of Severos, lllostrated in Hogarth's "Levant. ' 



Nearly all the buildings erected in Constantinople during 
the time of transition to the perfected Byzantine style of 
Justinian^s day have been destroyed* It is clear, however, 
that the authority of the Roman style had been entirely 
abrogated, and that a way had been opened up for free 
experiment once more. In some of the remarkable build- 
ings of SjnJa, for instance, stone construction was reduced 
to the mere elements of square posts, lintels, arches, slabs, 
and the rest ; all well devised and wrought, but entirely free 
from the dead hand in ^ proportion ^ and *^ decoration.^ 
This work, however, while germane to Byzantine work, 
is not properly to be classed as such. It is rather a separate 
school, which might as already said be called Hellenesque ; 
while the term Byzantine should be reserved for the style 
we shall endeavour to describe, the style which was 
developed to its highest point in Constantinople during 
the reign of Justinian, and to work directly derived from 
that school. 

Vast stores of recently acquired facts gathered frY>m 
explorations in North Africa, where the remains of more 



J' ire p. 32 

Fia z6. Stonefriesesoffourthor fifth century in the Cairo Museum, after 
Strzygowski. There are similar fragments in the British Museum. 


than a hundred early churches have been found, and from 

Asia Minor, Syria, and 
Egypt, are hardly yet to be 
seen in due perspective. For 
the decorative side of " Hel- 
lenesque" architecture im- 
portant data have been 
published by Strzygowski in 
his catalogue of Coptic 
works in the Cairo Museum, 
and in his tract on Aachen. 
At Cairo there are several 
fragments of carved friezes 
of local limestone in a free, 

Fig. 17. Stone Capital with palm- 
branch carving, fh)m Old Cairo, fifth 
century (?). 

Byzantinestyle, which 
are probably not later 
than the fifth century 
(Fig. 16). A capital 
of the same material, 
found in old Cairo 
and purchased for the 
Berlin Museum (no 
one in England cares 
for early Christian 
objects), is of re- 
markable interest as 
being obviously allied 
in its decoration to 
the great capitals of 

Fig. 18. Ivory panel in the Cairo Museum, 
slightly restored. 



Face p. 34 


Santa Sophia itself. It was certainly of local workman- 
ship, and it would be desirable to determine whether the 
type originated in Constantinople or in Egypt As to 
this, it may be noticed that the palm-foliage with which 
it is decorated is more closely related to such work as that 
shown in Fig. 16 than to any Constantinople work ; and 

Fig. 19. Diagram of Syrian arch-form from church of St. Simeon, 
sixth century. 

the likelihood seems to be that this is an Egypto- 
Hellenesque type (Fig. 17 and Plate 5). 

Alexandria was the great school of, and mart for, 
ivory-carving ; and many of the decorative ideas developed 
there were easily distributed over Christendom. Fig. 18 
is a slightly restored diagram of an ivory panel in the 
Cairo Museum which might pass for the representation of 
a marble from Constantinople or Ravenna. I give also in 
this place a diagram (Fig. 19) of the characteristic form 
of Syrian Arch, taken from a photograph of St. 


Simeon^s Church (sixth century). Arches of similar 
form are found in Egypt, sometimes of stone, as at the 
White Monastery, and more frequently of brick, and it 
seems clear that this form was first developed in brick 
construction as an easy expedient, and only adopted in 
stone when the eye had become used to it. Altogether, 
the share of Egypt in the transformation of art was 
probably of great importance.* 

In Fig. 20 is represented a fine mosaic pavement from 
Carthage, now in the British Museum, probably of the 
fourth or fifth century, and certainly Christian. It 
shows interlacing jets of water rising from chalice-shaped 
fountains; in the interspaces are peacocks, and in one 
place a partridge, both Christian symbols; tlie four 
streams from which stags drink, flowing from the sacred 
mount, fill another space. This should be compared with 
the mosaic from the Baptistery at Salona given by 
Garrucci, which is explained by the inscribed verse, ^ As 
the hartpanteth after the water brooks,^ &c. 

In Constantinople itself, the construction for the most 
part was developed out of the use of brickwork walls and 
vaults, and marble masonry. The marble, a beautiful 
coarse white variety, was found near at hand in the island 
of Proconnesus. The most characteristic constructive 
method is the concretion of brickwork. The bricks are 
thin *^ Roman tiles,^ and the mortar forms about half of 
the mass. Marble is used for isolated monolithic columns, 
and for Hutek and door-jambs. All is pure construction, 
for in no system has the functional structure, the bones 

* A good account of the two fine mid-fifth century churches of the 
White and Red Monasteries has been published by Bock, 190X. 



Face p. 36 

iii^wi^CB Fgr»^ ^ y% ^3<^xc»tt a> ^a^Mm <aag^a^^ss^paAv ^ 







and muscle of a building, been more sufficient unto 

The chief factor of Byzantine building is domical 
vaulting, the domes or vaults being shells of brick -concrete 
which are homogeneous with the walls, wide-spreading 
rather than high, and covered on the outside with lead. 
The concentric type of plan naturally resulted from the 
use of the dome, the parts around the middle spaces being so 
disposed as to spread the weight of the central dome over 
a wide area, and gradually diminishing in height. This 
resulted in greater unity of construction than is found in 
any other highly developed buildings. 

"Decoration^ was conceived of as the covering over, 
but not disguising, of this frame, with a continuous and 
beautiful surfieu^-skin obtained by the application of thin 
sheets of vari-coloured marbles and of glittering mosaic. 

In the interiors, where mosaic was used, it was carried 
continuously over the vaults and arches without any 
separating ribs, the re-entering and salient angles being 
rounded to take the tesserse. 

The exteriors of these churches were comparatively 
plain, save for the marble pillars and carved cornice of 
the atrium, but some of them had at least their western 
fronts covered with mosaic. Clavigo, a Spanish ambassador, 
who visited Constantinople in 1400, describes the church 
of St. Mary of the Fountain as having its exterior ^ all 
richly worked in gold, azure, and other colours/^ 

The column-capitals of Justinian^s time have never been 
matched for beauty. New types were then in use, together 
with modified forms of older ones in great variety. The 
new capitals were made by reverting to first principles of 



Face p. 38 



masonry. If a cubical block of marble be placed on a 
round shaft the diameter of which is less than a side of 
the square, and if now all the surplus material be cut 
away at the bottom so that the large square above 
gradually changes and diminishes into the circle beneath, 
we get the broad form of the new ^ Impost Capitals.^ 
Over this general form was designed a network of evenly 
distributed, sharply serrated leafage, and the ground was 
deeply sunk, and in places 
entirely undercut, so that a 
veil of marble stood free of 
the background. (Plates 6-8.) 

There were many varieties 
of the Impost Capital, which 
are found again and again. 
Thus those of the great order 
of Sta. Sophia, which in some 
respects stand apart from all 
others, are adorned with what, 
for distinction, we may call 
palm-branches. Exactly simi- 
lar foliage is found on capitals at Parenzo and on one 
from Pomposa at Ravenna. (Compare Fig. 17 and PI. 9.) 

The variety which Ruskin named, from some at 
St. Mark's, the ** lily capital,'" has been found in Constanti- 
nople and many other places. The finest example known is 
preserved in the Cairo Museum ;* it is wrought in the marble 
of Constantinople. At San Vitale, Ravenn£^ the whole 
ground story of the central area has capitals of this type. 
On the four sides of these capitals, in square panels, are 

* See Strzy. Copt. Cat. for figure and full list. 

Fig. ai. Byzantine capital ot 
sixth century, now in mosque of 
Kerouan, North Africa. 



carved tree-like forms simplified almost to a fleur-de-lis ; 
the rest of the capital is occupied by interlacing basket 
work. The whole is strangely beautiful, and yet seems to 
call for some explanation of origin and meaning. The 
figure is a foliaged T cross, which at the same time has some 
resemblance to the lotus. It seems pi*obable, as Strzygowski 

Fio. 22. Bytantine basket-capital found in Rome, from PiraneiL 

suggests, that this tjrpe was of Egjrptian origin. An 
example of this kind of capital has recently been found in 
the Mosque of Kerouan, not far from the ancient Carthage. 
Another found at the same place has the carved ornament 
arranged within a series of interlacing lozenges (Fig. 2i). 
Similar capitals to these last are found at Sta. Sophia, 
Parenzo, Jerusalem, and other places. The ^^bird and 
basket^ type of capital found in Constantinople has its 
lower part carved with open interlacing bands like a 



Face p. 40 



circular basket, and on the rim of this four doves are 
perched which fill the angles under the abacus. I give a 
figure after Piranesi of a capital of this kind found in 
Rome (Fig. 22). ^* Byzantine-Corinthian ^ capitals appear 

Fio. 23. Capital from a church in Isauria, Asia Minor. 

in a great variety of forms. Of these I give a beautiful 
example from a church in Isauria, Asia Minor (Fig. 23). 
Capitals at Parenzo and Ravenna are very similar in the 
much-recurved tips of the acanthus-leaves. 

Still another type is the ^* wind-blown acanthus,^ in 
which the leafage is twisted to the side instead of drooping. 
I give a fine example from Ravenna, which belonged to 


the basilica of Hercules, built by Theodoric, whose mono- 
gram it bears. (PL 4.) The identity of the form and material 
of capitals found in many places widely apart can only be 
accounted for by supposing that they were all wrought at 
one centre, and that centre must be Constantinople. 

Byzantine capitals usually have impost-blocks above 
them, from which the arches spring. An early example is 
to be found in the remnant of Galla Placidia^s church of 
St. John the Evangelist, Ravenna. Many origins have 
been suggested for this featrure, but its pi*actical utility has 
not been sufficiently noticed. Classical capitals which 
bore lintels were relieved of weight on the delicate project- 
ing parts by allowing the lintels to bear only above the 
columns, the rest of the tops of the capitals being 
slightly lowered. When, in a Byzantine building, (xrcfies 
sprang from capitals the imposts of which arches were 
as big as, or bigger than, the capitals, it was the best 
expedient to interpose a plain, weight-cari'ying block, 
reduced below so as only to rest on the centre of the 
capital. Moreover, this fell in with the general tendency 
to ^^ stilt ^ arches, or even to give them a horseshoe form, 
which was developed in Syria and Asia Minor. The 
impost-block was particularly convenient where the wall 
above the capital was very thick and the arch impost was 
oblong in plan. (Plates 7 and 8.) 

The earliest church still existing in Constantinople is 
the Basilica of St John, built about the middle of the 
fifth century. This is not vaulted, and, except for the 
freer character of the details in sculptiure, is much like a 
Roman church of the same time. The details, however, 





Face p. 42 



show that the Byzantine transformation was well advanced 
when the portico was built. Sts. Sergius and Bacchus, 
built by Justinian, about 527, is entirely vaulted, and has 
all the marks of the developed style. The domed central 

Fig. 04, Diagram showing form of the 
dome of St. Sergius, Constantinople. 

Fio. 25. Plaster rib on 
the same dome. 

area of this church is an octagon standing within a square 
which encloses an aisle around the octagon, to which the 
aisle opens between marble columns. At the four inter- 
mediate sides of the octagon these columns are not 
placed in straight lines, but are formed into exedras 
or apses. This is an extremely beautiful arrangement, 
enlarging upon the principle we have already seen used 


in the "Temple of Minenra Medica'' in Rome, but 
here the dome, instead of being carried by solid work, 
is entirely supported on open colonnades. The form 
of the dome is not properly described by Salzenberg or 
Choisy. It is not spherical nor set on regular penden- 
tives, but, each angle of the octagon being rounded 
into a niche, the dome springs in sixteen sides, the 
alternate ones over the angle niches being concave to the 
interior. On the inside, modelled plastered ribs follow the 
sixteen divisions and surround the eight arches. This is 
much disguised with Turkish painting, but is certainly 
Byzantine. The capitals of the columns, which are of 
great beauty, bear monograms of Justinian, Basileus, and 
of Theodora {see Fig. 24 and Fig. 25). 

The chrurh of Sancta Sophia was begun in 532, and it 
was dedicated in 537. It is described by two contemporary 
writers, Procopius, and Paulus the Court poet. In plan it 
is alone among churches (Fig. 26). It may be conceived 
as formed by dividing St. Sergius in two from north to 
south, and removing the two halves from one another by 
the distance of the width of the dome (now become two 
semi-domes), then, above the square void, raising a still 
higher dome supported right and left by ranges of arcades, 
as in a basilica. The dome is wide rather than high, and 
the sense of amplitude surpasses that offered by any other 
building in the world. In buildings of the basilican type 
size is obtained by repetition of a unit bay, but here the 
vast church is but one chamber surrounded by double tiers 
of aisles. The columns are of porphyry and verde an- 
tique, the carved capitals of white marble, the vaults were 
all encrusted with golden mosaics. The walls are sheeted 


over with thiu slabs of precious marbles, as the poet says, 

Fig. 26. Plan of SCa. Sophia, ConsULtinople. 

^^ fresh green as the sea, or emerald stone ; or, again, like 
blue cornflowers in grass, with, here and there, a drift of 


fallen snow ; there is wealth of porphyry, too, powdered 
with bright stars.^ The iconostasis was of silver and the 
altar of gold, under a silver canopy. The ambo, which 
stood forward, in the middle of the church, was of silver, 
ivory, and precious marbles. 

These, of course, have all disappeared, as also has the 
atrium, which enclosed a space in front of the western 
doors, with a fountain in the midst. Paulus, describing 
the opening ceremony after the repairs of 658, writes: 
*^ At last the holy mom had come, and the great door 
groaned on its hinges, as the sun lit up the glories of the 
temple. And when the first gleam of rosy light leapt 
from arch to arch all the princes and people hymned their 
songs of praise, and it seemed as if the mighty arches 
were set in Heaven. Whoever raises his eyes to the 
beauteous firmament of the roof scarce dares to gaze on 
its rounded expanse sprinkled with stars, but turns to the 
fresh green marble below; seeming, as it were, to see 
flower-bordered streams, or the deep peace of summer sea 
broken by the plashing oars of spray-girt ship.^ Two 
interesting contributions to the study of Sta. Sophia have 
lately been made, by Antoniades in a series of articles in 
Knowledge (1903), and by Preger in the Byzantimsche 
Zeitschrifi (1901). The latter shows that the account 
the ^' Anonymous'^ gives of the church dates at latest 
from the tenth century. His description of the floor laid 
to symbolise the four Paradise streams, the Ambo, the 
Fountain of the Atrium, &c., must apply to the church 
as it was before the dome fell in the last quarter of the 
tenth century. Our own R. Diceto, c. 11 80, gives a 
version of this text in his history. 



While Sta. Sophia was being built, a second great 
church, the Holy Apostles, was begun by Theodora in 
686. From the description of Frocopius it is well known 
that this was in the form of a cross covered by five domes. 

m • • • • m^ 

Fig. 97. Approximate plan of the church of the 
Holy Apostles, Constantinople. 

The central dome, he says, was pierced with windows, the 
sanctuary being beneath this, at the middle point of the 
church. In 1896 there was discovered in a convent on 
Mount Athos a poem describing this church, written about 
900, by Comtmtm^ of Rhodes. He first refers to the 


commanding position of the cross-shaped church on the 
fourth hill of the city, and then tells us that the master 
first designed a square, around which were added four 
arms, each having a double storey of columns. 

The central dome stood above four square pillars, 
and four pillars, standing in squares repeated four times, 
supported the other four domes. There were also forty- 
eight columns to each storey, like double ^^ rows of body 
guards.^ Twelve, the number of the apostles, in each of 
the four limbs, enclosed three sides, outside which was 
an aisle running continuously around the church. 

In the interior, bands of brightly coloured marble sur- 
rounded the walls ** like a wreath.^ The domes and arches 
and the upper part of the walls were covered with mosaic ; 
in the centre was Christ, the Virgin, and the Apostles 
(possibly the Ascension, as in the St. Mark^s central dome); 
there were besides several other scenes from the life of 
Christ — the Annunciation, Nativity, and Coming of the 
Kings, the Presentation in the Temple, Baptism, and 
Transfiguration — most of which also occur in St. Mark^s. 

The description can be well explained by reference to 
the plan of St. MarkX which, tradition says, was derived 
from that of the Church of the Apostles. 

The wall of the aisle surrounding the piers and columns 
which upheld the domes formed a strong outer support. 
There was a narthex and an atrium, but an eastern apse is 
doubtful. (See Fig. 27 from the ByzatUinische ZeiUchrjfi*) 

A Byzantine church usually stood apart in a close, sur- 
rounded by trees. It was entered through a cloistered 
* For the church of S. Irene see Appendix. 


forecourt, in the midst of which stood the phiale, or 
fountain. Across the front of the church sti*etched the 
narthex, forming its vestibule. The apse, and usually a 
short square space in front of it, shut off from the body 
of the church by a sci'een, was the bema. Around the 
curved wall were banks of raised seats, the synthronon, in 
the midst of which, against the wall, stood the patriarch^s 
throne. In front of the throne was the altar, protected 
by a canopy upheld on four columns. The bema was 
entered by the holy doors in the iconostasis. In front 
of this screen was the solea, a space set apart for the choir 
of singers. And on the middle axis rose the ambo, with 
stairs to it both to the east and west. 

Choisy has lately restated what was the opinion of 
R. de Fleury — that the iconostasis of Sta. Sophia stretched 
across the chord of the great eastern hemicyde ; but this 
would give a screen of a hundred feet long, and the 
position is not in accordance with the evidence still to 
be found in St. Sergius, nor with the text of the Silen- 
tiary^s poem. StiU more lately the question has been 
re-examined by M. Antoniades, whose view is that the 
hemicycle was not included in the bema. 

In Sta. Sophia and other churches of the first rank, the 
interior walls below were entirely sheeted with marble, 
and, above, they and the dome were overlaid with mosaics 
on a gold ground. Lesser churches were painted in sweet, 
gay colours. Painted walls and vaults, as, for instance, those 
in the parecclesia of the Chora church in Constantinople, 
are sometimes almost more beautiful than the mosaic 
churches. Paintings or mosaics alike cover the whole 
surface continuously. The former harmonise in fair, pearly 


hues, but the more splendid mosaics fill the whole'reservoir 
of air with a golden haze. Columns of polished porphyry 
and verde antique in such a setting take a value like 
jewels. Byzantine mosaics and wall-paintings and, indeed, 
book-paintings as well, are all alike in the dignity and 
directness of method, and in the mastery of sweet and 
grave expression, which characterises them. In a tradi- 
tional art, as this wa^ each product has a substance and 
content to which the greatest individual artists cannot 
hope to attain. It is the result of organic processes of 
thought and work. A great artist might make a little 
advance, a poor artist might stand a little behind, but the 
work, as a whole, was customary, and was shaped and 
perfected by a life-experience whose span was centuries. 
No more fit illuminations for pages of masonry can be 
conceived than these mosaic figures ; in their simple 
serenity they seem a doud of witnesses, angels and saints, 
upon a golden sky. 

Outside Constantinople the finest groups of Byzantine 
churches are to be found in Salonica and Ravenna. At 
Salonica there are two basilicas, a domed square church, 
and a domed circular church. St. George, the round 
church, is 79 feet in diameter, with large niches round 
about taken out of the wall, which altogether is about 
18 feet thick. The dome has a series of remarkable early 
mosaics of martyrs in attitudes of prayer, who stand 
before large architectural facades. The church and deco- 
rations seem to be of the fifth or even the fourth century. 
Many of the mart3rrs figured in the mosaics were soldier- 
«;aints, and it seems probable, as the mosaic over the 


Face p. 50 



opeiiing to the apse is destroyed, that that contained 
St. Greorge, and that the others were companion warriors. 
At Ravenna we can very well trace the course of early 

Fig. 28. Plan of St Vitale, Ravenna. 

Byzantine art. Here are ja number of monuments which 
are almost exactly dated, and some of which have 
preserved the full splendour of their decorations. Of 
the first period we have the work executed for Galla 
Placidia, the daughter of Theodosius the Great and 



sister of Honorius. Her tomb chapel remains nearly 
perfect to this day. It is a small cruciform building 
with a domical vault over the centre, roofed as a 
tower on the exterior. The four vaults of the arms of 
the cross spring at about five feet from the pavement 
Above this height the vaults and walls are entirely covered 
with mosaic, and below, the waUs are plated with marble. 
The cupola is built of earthenware amphorae set into 
each other and imbedded in concrete. Tlie mosaics have 
a blue ground on which, at the centre of the cupola, is a 
lai'ge cross set in a heaven of gold stars. Below are the 
four symbols of the Evangelists, and, on the walls, are 
figures. This building was completed before 450. Within 
the next eight or ten years the orthodox Baptistery was 
built and decorated by Bishop Neon. It is a tall octagonal 
structure, domed on the inside and encrusted with blue- 
ground mosaics, marbles and stucco reliefs. 

The next period is that of Theodoric, to which belong 
the great basilica of Sant^ Apollinare Nuovo (c. 526), 
part of the octagonal church of San Vitale, the Mauso- 
leum of Theodoric (c. 520), the Baptistery of the Arians 
(c. 526), and other less perfect buildings. 

Saut^ Apollinare Nuovo has an arcade of a dozen bays 
supported on cipollino columns ; above this arcade is a 
long procession, in mosaic, of white-robed saints, from 
end to end. These were not wrought until between 556 
and 569. On the left, at the east, the Virgin sits on a 
star-embroidered throne surrounded by four archangels. 
To her come the three kings led by the star and bearing 
gifts, and they are followed by virgin saints, each one of 
whom bears a crown, and between each pair rises a palm- 



Face p. 52 


tree. At the west end is a city with a port and ships ; 
over its gate, from which the saints seem to issue, is 
written: "civrrAs classis'' (the port of Ravenna). On 
the right-hand side of the nave, and opposite the Virgin, 
is Christ and four angels, and then a procession of saints 
led by St. Martin. These seem to come out from a repre- 
sentation of Ravenna itself at the west end. A magnifi- 
cent palace is here shown, and over the city gate appear 
the letters ^' civrrAS baven . . ^ These bands of mosaics 
are about ten feet high. The idea of this procession 
of all saints reminds us of the Panathenaic frieze wrought 
a thousand years before around another temple by other 
Greek hands.* (Plate lo.) 

The Mausoleum of Theodoric is a circular building on 
the outside, and covered by a low dome, or rather lid, of 
one stone about thirty-three feet in diameter. Upright 
projections like enormous handles are left on the upper 
side surrounding the dome, and on these are engraved the 
names of the Apostles. These curious features appear to be 
imitations of small abutting arches like those which sur- 
round the dome at Sta. Sophia, Salonica. The height of the 
building is divided into two stages — the lower one is the 
larger, and was surrounded above by an arcaded passage. 
Choisy points out that it has stylistic affinities with 
Syrian work, and Strzygowski, calling to mind that several 
of the early bishops of Ravenna were Syrians, thinks that 
Ravenna in much derived from Syria, especially from 
Antioch. The capping of a single stone with its oma- 

* These mosaics have been restored. Large portions were missing 
when the plates given by Garmcci were drawn. The two city subjects 
belong to Theodoric's time. 


ment, which resembles goldsmiths^ work, and was doubtless 
decorated with gilding and colour, was possibly intended 
to suggest a crown. 

San Vitale is very similar in its plan to Sts. Sergius and 
Bacchus in Constantinople ; but here the central space has 
eight exedras instead of four; that is to say, it has an 
octo-foil form. It is usually said to have been built 
between 525 and 534; the mosaics are later, and it was 
not consecrated until 547. It is said that Ecclesius the 
bishop handed the building over to Julius Argentarius 
about 526, who finished and decorated it. The capitals 
of the choir bear the monogram of Julius, and some 
inscriptions have been found, one of which says he built, 
ornamented and dedicated the church, and another that 
he perfected it. The capitals of the body of the church 
have monograms, which have been explained in many 
ways, some of which are quite impossible. Strzygowski in 
a recent study of the subject says he can get no other 
result than neon EFis[copus]. This is startling, as Neon 
ruled the See from 449 to 458. See monogram 2, Fig. 29 ; 
Garrucci gives 3 as the monogram of Neon from the Bap- 
tistery, and some others are here added for comparison. It 
is to be noted that some of the columns signed with mono- 
gram 3 come above those signed by Julius. Altogether the 
difficulties in accepting the reading Neon seem too great. 
The monogram may be read Petrus Episcopus as well as 
Neon. In the centre of the apse-mosaic, Christ is seated on an 
orb, beneath which spring the four rivers, which flow away 
through fields of lilies. On one side a white-robed arch- 
angel presents San Vitale, to whom Christ extends a crown ; 
on the other, Ecclesius, the bishop, is led up, and presents 







■£r •••*,» •ws::^ 

ravp:nna. mosaic portrait of theodora 

Face p. 54 




a model of the church. On one wall is a group consisting 
of the Emperor Justinian and the Bishop Maximian, with 
attendant clergy and soldiers. On the other side is Theodora 
with her Court ladies ; her headdress glitters with jewels. 
(Plates II and 12.) In these mosaics mother-of-pearl is 

Fig. 99. Monograms : (x) Theodoric from Basilica of Hercules ; 
(2) Neon Eps (?) from S. Vitale; (3) Neon from Baptistery, see 
Garrucd ; (4) lohannes from S. Clemente, Rome ; (5) Euphrasiiis 
Eps. from Parenzo; (6) Mazimian Episcopos, Ravenna; (7) 
ANAPEOV (?), Ravenna. 

used, and in the emperor^s and empresses jewels ai*e set real 
stones and pearls. The marble capitals and pierced screens 
are of finest Constantinople work. The soffits of the 
arches have patterns in modelled plaster. The mosaics of 
San Vitale, and the long processions of Sant^ Apollinare 
Nuovo, are directly the work of Justinian, who repossessed 
himself of Ravenna in 539. The problems raised by 


St. Vitale are of great interest in the history of Art. 
In 1903 the foundations of an Atrium were found squaring 
with the Narthex which stands obliquely to the church. 
It has also been recently shown that the vaults of the 
aisle of the Rotunda were built after 539. 

Sant^ Apollinare in Classe, the other great basilica, was 
built in 534-538, after the death of Theodoric in 526. 
Here, also, are many beautiful mosaics. In regard to this 
basilica, R. de Fleury has brought forward a theory that 
the arcades at a late time have been lifted up bodily for 
some feet, an equal space being cut out of the wall 
above, the reason being to raise the floor out of danger of 

At Parenzo there is another basilica of the same age ; 
but, before turning to it, I would just mention the superb 
ivory bishop^s chair at Ravenna, which bears the monogram 
of Maximian. It was probably wrought in Alexandria, 
and is the finest existing example of ivory work. (PI. 13.) 

Of Parenzo it is related that it was built from 539 to 
543, and was founded with the goodwill of the Emperar 
Justinian. Here the atrium is intact, and a baptistery is 
attached to the centre of its west side. The exterior of 
the west front of the church was covered with mosaics of 
saints adoring Christ, Who sat amid the seven candlesticks. 
In the interior there is a fine assortment of capitals of 
different types, and the ornamental plasterwork of the 
arches is almost identical with that of Ravenna ; in fact, 
it seems likely that the work was entirely done by the 
same artists who worked at Ravenna. The apse has pre- 
served its hemicycle of seats, and its walls are covered 
with beautiful inlays of marble, porphyry, mother-of-pearl, . 



Face p. 56 



and iridescent shells. In the conch of the apse is a mosaic 

of the Virgin seated, on a background of gold flecked over 

with rose and azure clouds ; on either hand is an angel, 

and on the left Euphrasius, the 

bishop, who holds a model of 

the church, and other figures. 

Monograms of Euphrasius ap- h { A 

pear on the capitals and in other 

parts of the building. Some 

mosaics of Christ and the 

Apostles on the front of the 

triumphal arch, probably of the 

ninth century, have lately been 


Justinian seems to have been 
the greatest builder who ever 
lived. He did not, like Augus- 
tus or Nero, merely adorn a 
city, but his entire empire. An 
important monument in the 
Cast, of which the date is not 
certain, may here be spoken of. 
This, the Church of the Nati- 
vity at Bethlehem, is, from its 
associations and the influence it 
must have exercised, one of the most interesting of the 
world. It is a five-aisled basilica, crossed by a transept 
proper, the east, north, and south arms all being termi- 
nated by similar apses. An excellent description of it as 
it appeared in 1484 is given by Felix Fabri. The seventy 

Fia 3a The Basilica at Beth- 
lehem, with details of the pillars 
at the crossing. 


precious columns of the interior and the marble slabs 
lining the walls were polished as brightly as a mirror. On 
the capitals rested beams of wood, above which the walls 
were adorned with mosaic, with figures from the Old 
Testament and corresponding figures from the New. 
*' The whole church is either cased with marble or mosaic.^ 
The roof is of wood covered with lead. The church is 
1 60 feet long inside, and under the crossing is the famous 
cave in the rock. It is known from Eusebius that 
Constantine built a church over this chamber. Eutychius, 
writing in the tenth century, says that this church, 
being small, was destroyed and built in a better fashion 
by Justinian. This account is accompanied by some 
apparently legendary matter. Justinian, it is said, was 
dissatisfied by the way his agent had carried out his 
commands, and had him executed. Procopius, in his 
history of the works of Justinian, only says that the 
emperor restored the wall of Bethlehem and the church 
of the Abbot Joannes in the same place. 

Fergusson says that '* the choir with its three apses does 
not seem to be part of the original arrangement, but to 
have been added by Justinian.**^ De Vogii^, however, is 
clear as to its being a work built ^ in one jet,^ and con- 
cludes that the account of Eutychius is to be set aside, 
and that the basilica is an original work of Constantine. 
R. de Fleury is of the same opinion.* As to the present 
church being one work I entirely agree; but I do not 
believe it to be Constantine's. It is certainly not like 

* Of recent writers Kraus holds it to be Constantinian ; Enlart that 
the nave is of the sixth century ; Dehio that the nave and east end are 
of different dates ; V. le Due seems to have held that the whole was a 
sixth-centory work. 



Justinian^s work in Constantinople, and many stylistic 

arguments could be urged in favour of both views. But 

on weighing them I feel that, although it migtU be 

Justinian^s work, it cannot be Con- 

stantineV From internal evidence 

alone, I should be inclined to assign it 

to an intermediate period, after St. 

Jerome had made Bethlehem a famous 

monastic centre. We might expect 

that Constantine^s building would have 

been a circular martyrion, not a large 

congregational or monastic basilica; 

the front faces the west, not the east. 

The plan is a pronounced cross, and 

the abaci of the capitals bear crosses 

within wreaths. 

Clermont Ganneau has recently shown 
that the western fa9ade had a mosaic 
of the Nativity dating fit)m the time 
of Justinian. It is said that the Per- 
sians under Chosroes, recognising their 
own national costumes in those of the 
three kings, forbore to destroy the 
church. The inner walls were decor- 
ated with mosaics imtil a late period. 
Inside the gable wall was a great Tree of Jesse ; around 
the choir the New Testament story; and in the nave 
symbolic buildings standing for the seven great councils. 
Most of these mosaics were of the twelfth century. A 
part of the atrium and three entrance doors were also in 
existence until lately ; now only the central door remains. 

Fig. 3z. Byxantine 

candlestick in the 

Cairo Museum. 


The convent of St Catherine at Sinai is an undoubted 
example of a monastery of the time of Justinian. It is a 
fortified stronghold surrounded by a square of high thick 
walls. Within, the church is set down obliquely and the 
interspaces are filled with cells, chapels, stores. The 
church is basilican, with apse and side chambers. The 
colunms of the interior bear fine capitals, the pavement is 
covered with marbles, the roof is painted and gilt, and the 
apse is covered with mosaic. Around the apse is figured 
the Transfiguration — Christ, Moses and Elias, and below 
Peter, James and John. Round about in medallions are 
the Apostles and the Prophets. Upon the vault is the 
Burning Bush and Mount Sinai, with two figures of Moses, 
putting ofi^ his shoes on one side and on the other carrying 
the tables of the Law. Above are two angels and two 
heads in medallions, which the monks say represent 
Justinian and Theodora. On the right of the apse is the 
white marble tomb of St. Catherine, ornamented with 
reliefs, one of which represents two fawns adoring. 
Behind and below the level of the apse is the more 
ancient chapel of the Burning Bush. The chief glory of 
the church is the enamelled door between the narthex and 
the nave. This door is 8 feet wide and about 14 feet high, 
and the enamels, are mounted in two panels surrounded 
by delicately ornamented bronze work. This door is 
probably the work of the tenth or eleventh century : the 
mosaics also may be later than the church. Ebers* found 
on some timbers which had belonged to the roof three 
Greek inscriptions to the following effect : ^ For the pre- 
servation of our pious King Justinian the Greaf*^ ^ To 
* **Darch Goshen sam Sinai." 



the memory of our defunct Queen Theodora.^ ^^ Lord, 
whom we adore in this place, save Thy servant Stephen, 
and the architect of this monastery, Ailisios, also Nonnas ; 
have pity on them.*" 

Hiis fortified monastery as a whole follows the type of 
the earlier White and Red Monasteries on the Nile, built 
about 450. 

One of the most extraordinary buildings of the sixth 

. Z^A/favLf-sr&l ^2 J t • — "i*.! — 

Fig. 3a. Diagram of lower storey of the Palace at Mashita in Moab. 
The whole is elaborately carved with foliage, birds, and beasts. 

century is the church of St. Simeon Stylites in Syria. In 
the centre of a fine octagonal court rose the saint's pillar, 
and from the four cardinal sides opened as many complete 
basilican churches, while the intermediate sides of the 
octagon were occupied by semicircular exedrse. 

We must spare a page just to mention the subject of 
Byzantine palaces. These, it seems, were as typical in 
their traditional arrangements as the churches. The 
plans of the Palatine palaces have been recovered, and we 
have a full record of Diocletian's palace at Spalato. In the 
East, the wonderful building discovered by Tristium at 


Mashita, in Moab, was in a fair dtate of preservation. 
This last Fergusson assigned to Chosroes II. (598-^28), and 
Perot and Chipiez agree that the ^'ornamentation certainly 
bears the mark of that date."^* This, however, I cannot 
accept; it seems rather to be Byzantine work of the age of 
Justinian or even slightly earlier. The plan follows the 
Western type, having a striking resemblance to Spalato. 
Moreover, Dr. Merrell has shown the untenability of the 
historic assumption. To account for the Byzantine 
character it has been said that it might have been built 
by Greek artists for the Persian conqueror, but we have a 
record that the palace at Ctesiphon, built by Chosroes I. 
(531-579) was so built, and in artistic character there is 
no resemblance between these two buildings. Comparison 
surely makes it plain that the lovely Mashita work, which 
has affinities even with Baalbec and Palmyra in the style of 
the decorations, must be the earlier one. Fig. 32 is a diagram 
of the lines of the lower part of the facade ; this framework 
is covered and filled with carved adornment. The type of 
the ornamentation, animals and birds in an elaborate 
thicket of foliage, is like that of the Ravenna ivory throne. 
Compsuie the great triapsidal triclinium of the Palace of 
Constantinople and also the triclinium of Leo in the 
Vatican with the great hall here. The plan of the Roman 
palace at Treves given by Dehio may also be compared 
with Mashita. Recent excavations have shown that the 
so-called palace of Theodoric at Ravenna is really a gate- 
way or outlying portion, and probably not earlier than 
the eighth century. 

* Dieulafoi and Gayet also accept this date. See Appendix B. 















U^TEK *» chapter, By»n- 

V. West wwe*»^**r*"l^dkduptoanew 

* the exarchate at »r!Ji A large Greek colony was 

2S^ there, and ^'^^ ,ten Sta. Mana in 

Sonoclastic P««^^°",f"Sr ^uola Greca. was m con»e- 
Coamedin, the Chittch oi ^^ ^^^ monastenea 

S^ce rebuUt, and -^^^^^ at S. Sabas, Sta. Maria 
lere erected. f^J^^, have brou^t to light much 
;;^tiqua, and S. C^""^^, period, when it aeen« that 
new evid«»ce m «^ ^^^^ .^^ ^e hands of the Greeks, 
the arts in »f J"*;. ^ of a Greek monastery. Here the 
S. Sabas ''»» ?^?^!° work of the sixth or seventYi cen- 
lower part ot t J^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ YMnx^g iaacriptioM 
tury, T*'rC»rand Latin. At Sta, Maria Aivtiqua all 
^^. ^l^tions were also bilingual, and the paiatrngs are 

^^^ries of paintings was found, probably of ^le eighth 


century, which, although less typically Greek, are evidently 
an outcome of the Byzantine school. 

All the mosaics of this middle period, such as those in 
the Chapel of the Lateran Baptistery, must be Greek. 
Cattaneo, speaking of the mosaics of S. Prassede, says: 
^^ Like those which were executed in or out of Rome from 
the sixth to the ninth century, they are, according to my 
judgment, of Greek workmanship. This opinion agrees 
with what Leone Ostiensi says, namely, that when 
Desiderio, Abbot of Monte Cassino, founded in 1066 a 
kind of school of mosaic-work under the direction of 
Greek masters, he revived this art in Italy after it had 
been five hundred years extinct. Lanciani figures the 
brick stamp of Pope John VII. (705-707), the letters of 
which are in Greek, IIOANN. The South of Italy during 
the eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries became almost 
entirely Greek. In the North, Venice and Ravenna were 
equally Byzantine during this period. Rivoira gives a 
monogram found sculptured on the round tower of 
S. ApoUinare Nuovo, Ravenna, which he would i-ead as 
that of Bishop Johannes (850--878), but it is clearly in 
Greek, as shown by the delta and the termination in OV, 
and Strzygowbki reads it ANAPEOV. (See Pig. 29.*) 

Constantinople forms a broad bridge between Roman 
antiquity and the Middle Age, and there all artistic 
traditions were preserved and handed on. Only in 
Constantinople is it certain that there is continuity 

* The dates of the Ravenna towers are undecided ; some hold that 
they are of the sixth, others of the eighth century ; the later date is, I 
think, more probable. 


between the Roman CoUegi and Mediaeval Guilds^ Other 
Guilds may have survived in the West, but common 
features between those of Constantinople and those of Italy 
and France, at a later time, seem to point to direct trans- 
mission. Leo the Wise, son of Basil I., under whom the 
arts greatly revived in Constantinople, made a new codifi- 
cation of the laws, including those relating to merchandise 
and craftsmanship. From these it appears that the Cor- 
porations of Constantinople in the ninth century had for 
Grand Master the prefect of the town, who was the inter- 
mediary between them and the Grovemment; and the edict 
of Leo relating to these corporations bears the name of 
" The Book of the Prefect*' 

The crafts occupied fixed quarters in the city, and all 
products had to be sold in open market at a standard 
price ; the corporation usually bought materials in block, 
which it distributed among the members of its College ; 
but in the regulations referring to the Building Crafts — 
joiners, plasterers, marble-workers, locksmiths, painters, 
and all ^^ artisans who undertake works'** — we find that it 
was customary for the employer to furnish materials and 
for the craftsmen to engage to do the work. The cor- 
porations are named in the following order: notaries, 
goldsmiths, exchangers, merchants of silken goods, Syrian 
merchants, merchants of raw silk, silk spinners, makers 
of silken goods, linendrapers, perfumers, chandlers, soap- 
makers, spicers, salters, butchei*s, pork merchants, fish- 
mongers, bakers, innkeepers, cattle brokers, and, last, 
all those who undertake any kind of work as joiners, 
plasterers, &c. The customs here made known to us are 
extraordinarily like Western Guild regulations. 



Byzantine art in Constantinople speedily declined after 
the age of Justinian, and the most beautiful buildings 
of the next epoch are those built for the Mohammedan 
conquerors of Syria and Egypt by Greek masters. The 
Dome of the Rock at Jerusalem, and the Aksa Mosque 
were built by Abd-al-Malik at the end of the seventh 
century. It has been said that the latter is Justinian'^s 
Church of the Virgin altered to a new purpose, but it 
seems more likely that the church was on an entirely 
different site— on Mount Sion — and that the fine capitals 
in the Mosque were wrought for their present position. 
The Mosque of Damascus, built about 705, was, of all 
these Byzanto- Arabic works, the most beautiful, having 
a vast arcaded courtyard which was patterned with mosaics 
all around above the arches. (Plate 14.) An agreement 
between the Caliph Walid and the Emperor provided that 
the latter should supply ^^^a (mosaic) to adorn the new 
mosque which he was building. The exterior of the Dome 
of the Rock was also covered with similar mosaics. The 
mosque of Amr at Cairo was rebuilt in 711 in a form 
which it still preserves, although it has been added to. 
Arab art is probably largely of Coptic origin. 

The history of later Byzantine art following the age of 
Justinian has never been fiiUy set out. A second marked 
period is found in the work of the eleventh century, which 
represents a revival under the Basils, and the beginning of 
which probably coincided with the restoration of orthodoxy 
in 843. It has lately been argued that the basilican 
Church of St. Demetrius in Salonica was rebuilt in the 
seventh century, but in any case it follows the tradition of 
sixth-century work. The church now the Ealenders 


Mosque at Constantinople, probably belongs to the inter- 
mediate period. The similar small cruciform church of 
Protaton, Mount Athos, is dated c. 950. The later style 
is more Oriental and not so universal as the earlier work. 
Elements seem to have been absorbed by it from Persia 
and Armenia, and some of the later carvings have become 
semi-barbarous, consisting of beasts tearing one another 
and of birds of prey — ^an Eastern savagery parallel to the 

The eastern wars and the great iconoclastic dispute 
broke the tradition of the Hellenesque Byzantine style. 
When there came a revival in the arts the style is so 
changed as to call for a distinct name — Secondary Byzan- 
tine may serve our purpose, but I believe that Armenian 
Byzantine would express the facts. Eondakov, who has care- 
fully examined the iconography and ornamental arts of the 
two periods, says that the later miniatiures, mosaics and 
enamels are deeply affected by Oriental influences. ** At 
the end of the tenth century the Byzantine empire has 
lost its true Greek national tradition. The government, 
commerce and industry have been invaded by Oriental and 
barbarous elements; the throne and the army have 
become the prey of Armenians and Slavs. In art the 
sculpting panels of Greoigia and the gates of the churches 
of Armenia decorated with arabesques o£Fer direct corre- 
spondences with Byzantine works. The Christian . Orient 
and Constantinople reformed the architecture in the same 
sense. Hence the picturesque narrow corridors, tall 
tambours and barbarous ornament.^ 

The later buildings are for the most part small, the 
domes are raised high on drums and partake of the 


character of central circular towers ; the walls are of stone, 
or then* exterior surfaces are much ornamented with 
patterns foimed in the brickwork. Of this class of 
surface- work the most beautiful example is the palace on 
the western walls of Constantinople, sometimes called the 
Palace of Belisarius, but which was probably built by 
Constantine Porphyrogenitus. One of the most complete 
Byzantine churches in existence, St. Luke in Phocis, a 
description of which has been recently published by 
Messrs. Schultz and Bamsley, well represents the later type 
of churches ; it wcus built early in the eleventh century. 

As types of these late buildings I give small plans of 
the church of the Monastery of Daphne at Athens 
(Fig. 33), and of the church on the island of Chios 
(Fig. 34). Daphne almost exactly resembles the churches 
of St Nicodemus at Athens and St. Luke in Phocis; 
all were built in the first half of the eleventh century. 
The plan of the Chios church is also practically the same, 
except that it is without the lateral aisles. The mosaics 
of this church are dated 1042-56.* 

The fine church of the Apostles at Salonica with its 
high domes and walls built in bricks laid in patterns must 
be fully as late, and not as Texier dates it of the seventh 

The Church at Skripou, which also follows the plan- 
type of Daphne, is of special interest, as we find its vaulting 
executed with diagonal ribs. 

Messrs. Schultz and Barnsley have given a full account 
of the very perfect mosaic-scheme of St. Luke^s, Phocis. 

* Another modification of the same type and plan is found in a 
charch near Athens, where the dome rises above an heragonal space, 
two points of which touch the north and south waUs. 



Strzygowski has described those of Chios, cmd Didron and 
Brockhaus have given the schemes of the Athos churches. 
Of these Vatopedi was founded in 972, and the mosaics 
belong to the first half of the eleventh century. Millet 
has devoted a volume to the beautiful mosaics of Daphne. 

Fig. 33. Plan of the Monastic Fig. 34. Plan of the Church on the 
Church of Daphne, near Athens. island of Chios, eleventh century. 

The only mosaic-scheme of which we know anything at 
Santa Sophia, Constantinople, belongs to this later time. 
At the centre of the dome was a colossal figure of Christ, 
the Pantokrator ; in the pendentives are still four immense 
cherubim ; on the walls to the right and left were 
depicted prophets, great saints of the Eastern Church, 



and probably Apostles; on the conch of the east apse 
the Virgin with the Holy Child was seated on a throne ; 
on the vault immediately over the altar were the Arch- 
angels Michael and Gabriel ; and at the crown of the vault 
between them was the Veronica; on the great eastern 
arch was figured the Throne prepared for the Second 

Fio. 35. Church of the Apostles, at Salonica, after Texier. 

Coming of Christ, and at the springing of the arch, 
St John the Baptist, and the Virgin ; the great western 
arch had at the Crown the Virgin, and figures of Sts. 
Peter and Paul at the springing ; over the entrance door 
was the Majesty between medallions of the Virgin and a 
winged figure of St. John the Forerunner, and at Chrisf s 
feet an Emperor ; in one of the cupolas of the galleries 
was represented the Pentecost, the twelve Apostles in a 
circle receiving the tongues of fire from the Holy Spirit 


in the midst ; in the west gallery were subjects from the 
Life of Christ. 

One of the finest existing dome-mosaics is that of Santa 
Sophia, Salonica, which has at the centre Christ seated 
on a rainbow within a circle borne by two flying angels. 
Below, round about, ai'e the twelve Apostles, and the 
Virgin accompanied by two angels, all standing on rocky 
ground with a tree separating each figure from the next. 
The mosaics were described in 1849 ^ *^ ^^^ quite fresh 
with the exception of a large Virgin and Child slightly 
disfigured."" This subject was in the apse, which I find 
described a few years later as having a figure on a gold 
ground, ^^ I should say a Virgin and Child, but thoroughly 
defaced.^ Around the Bema Arch was an inscription 
referring to the building of the Temple of Jerusalem. 
On the side walls was an inscription giving the names of 
Constantine and of Irenius, Bishop. Around the dome, 
another inscription which gave the first figures of a date, 
the rest being unfortunately destroyed ; this date has been 
interpreted as having been 490, or again, 645, but must 
be later.* 

This Church is mentioned certainly in a document of 
685-695, but I cannot think that the mosaics go back so 
far as any of these dates. We have seen that the 
Ascension was figured on the dome of the Apostles 
Church, when described about 900, but it may then have 
been just completed. The scheme as found at Salonica 
exactly coincides with the directions for representing the 
Ascension, given in the painter^s manual, written at a later 
date, and resembles the central dome of St Mark^s (c. 1 100). 
* See Byx. ZHts, 1895, p. 432. 


Compare also an ivory panel, apparently of the tenth 
century, figured by Schlumberger.* Altogether I cannot 
think that these mosaics were earlier than the tenth 
century, t 

Several fine floors of marble inlaid with meandering 
bands of mosaic which were executed in the tenth and 
eleventh centuries, still exist in Greek churches. From 
this method of ^'parcel- mosaic^ sprang the so*called 
Cosmati work of Rome. Such work if found there would 
at once be accepted as Cosmati work of the thirteenth 
century. (See Plate 15.) 

It was this late Byzantine style acting on the West by 
many channels, by the migration of its artists, by the 
dissemination of ivories, MSS., bronzes, gold-work, tex- 
tiles, and enamels, which gave the artistic impetus which 
led up to Romanesque art. The West, of course, con- 
tributed the ability and readiness to absorb and transform 
these influences. 

At the time we are considering a church-plan is found 
in many places, as at Salonica, on Mount Athos, and in 
Armenia, which has apses projecting north and south 
of the central area as well as to the east (See plan, Fig. 36, 
of St Elias, Salonica, c. 1012.) We shall see farther on 
how this plan became a favourite one in western Roman- 
esque architecture. 

• " Un Emperear Byx." p. 453. This, and " I'Epop^ By«." by the 
same author, contain a large body of illustrations of tenth to twelfth 
century Byzantine Art. 

t Since writing the above, I have seen the tract of E. G. Redin 
giving photographs of the mosaics and inscription : he assigns them to 
the eleventh or twelfth century. The Virgin is a very beautiful 
figure, much like that at Torcello. For the last word on the inscription 
see J. Kurth in Athen. Mitth. xxii. 1897. 



Face p. j2 



In the tenth century, probably the most original forms 
in the art of building were in use in Armenia. The 
remarkable churches of the deserted walled city of Ani 
are built of finely wrought stone in a style partly Byzan- 
tine, partly Persian, and with certain features which are 
curiously like Romanesque work. 
Wall-arcades are lai^ly used, the 
roofs are steeper than in Greek 
work, and a tower and cone take 
the place of the central dome; 
arches are pointed. A good ac- 
count of this architecture has 
lately been given by Mr. Lynch.* 

I had written so far before I 
had seen of the discovery of the 
extremely important link in the 
church of St. Gregory the Illu- 
minator at Etschmiadsin, built 
640-661 by the Patriarch 


Fla 36. Plan of the church of 
Sl Elias, Salonica, €, loza. 

Nerses III. lliis shows that 
the favourite Armenian plan of 

the form of a lobed cross or quatrefoil dates from an 
early time. The central area of this church was a 
quatrefoil surrounded by an aisle circular to the 
outside. Four strong pillars at the points of the quatre- 
foil once bore a dome. The presbytery occupied 
the eastern lobe of the cross, and this alone was 
surrounded by a closed wall; the other lobes were set 
round by columns, all having basket capitals and mono- 
grams of Nerses. The great piers had attached three- 
* "Armenia: Traveb and Stndies." 



quarter columns, and the aisle wall was decorated by 
small attached pillars, which evidently formed part of a 
continuous wall-arcade like that of the apse of Ani. 
This and the three-quarter columns of the great piers are 

Fig. 37. Plan of the church of St. Gregory, Etschmiadsin, 
Armenia, c, 650. 

strangely ^^ Romanesque^' features to find at so early a 
time. ( See Fig. 37.) 

The lobed cross plan is again repeated in a more 
marked form in the probably equally ancient plan of the 
patriarchal church of Etschmiadsin. Here the four great 
piers stand within a square area from which, in the centre 
of each wall, opens an apse — four in all. (See Fig. 38.) 



One of the most remarkable of the churches noticed by 
Mr. Lynch is that of Akhtamar, described as unique in 
his experience. It is built of squared reddish sandstone, 
on the apsed cruciform plan, 48.6 x 38 feet inside, with a 
sixteen-sided tower over the crossing, capped with a stone 

Fig. 38. Plan ofthe Cathedral of Etschmiadsin,AnneDia. 

cone, or rather many-sided pyramid. It is ** a work of the 
first quarter of the tenth century.'' The exterior walls at 
the half height are adorned with a series of relief sculptures 
of Bible stories and other subjects — the Serpent tempting 
Eve, Adam and Eve on either side of the tree, and in one 
place a king presenting a model of the church to an 
ecclesiastic. The roofs, and this is general in these 
Armenian churches, are covered with stone slabs, evidently 


bedded solid on the vaults, the inclined joints being 
covered with half-rolls of stone. The walls are built in 
very finely jointed ashlar of big stones. 

I have seen photographs of Eslick Vank church, Tor- 
toom, which clearly belongs to the same school. It is 
said to have been built by Gugol in the reign of 

Fig. 39. Church of Ushkal, Souanetie, in the Caucasus. 

Ardaneses II. of Georgia between 923 and 927. It is a 
fine stone-built cruciform structure, with a central tile- 
covered cone over a high drum. The exterior has a good 
deal of sculpture, and in the interior is a large sculptured 
group, of Christ in the centre with hand upraised in 
blessing, on the left the Virgin, on the right St. John, and, 
beyond, two other figures with square nimbuses, a king 
and ecclesiastic, each carrying a similar model ot the 

I have also seen photographs of the noble Convent 



Church of Gklati, near Eutais in the Caucasus. This is 
built on a cross plan with one great apse to the east and 
two smaller ones on each side of it opposite the ends of 
the aisles ; the aisles extend to the face of the transept ; 



Fig. 4a Church at Anabat, Van, in Armenia. 

at the centre is a tall circular tower with conical roof. 
Brosset gives a useful plan of this fine church, but the 
beauty of these monuments cannot be imagined from 
his poor diagrams. I give a slight sketch (Fig. 39) from a 
photograph of a small church in the Caucasus, which 
would not at all surprise us if found in the West. Fig. 40 


shows the high cones and stone roofs characteristic of 
many of these Armenian churches. 

Another beautifully built stone church is the ruined 
cathedral of Koutais, the finest of Georgian monuments, 
built c. 1003 ; the facade has tall recessed pointed arches. 

Ani Cathedral, built about loio, is especially remark- 
able in having the dome upborne on pointed arches built 
in several recessed orders rising from piers also membered. 
The exterior is surrounded by a single storey of wall 
arches, while the apse within has a deeply recessed wall 
arcade of small scale, exactly like such arcades in the 
west This in Texier^s plan, in Mr. Lynches photograph, 
and Brosset^s diagram of the interior, seems strangely 
western. Compare also an interior given in Strzygowski^s 
Klein Asien. Other of these Ani buildings are built in a 
Persian style ; one called by Mr. Lynch the Church of the 
Apostles has a large porch with domes supported on 
diagonal arches. These Armenian churches are built of 
very fine squared masonry, the character of which seems 
to be derived from the Syrian school of building. The 
greater part of Armenian architecture is probably an 
outcome of an admixture of Hellenesque and Persian 
influences. In the Persian Palace of Ctesiphon and in the 
remarkable building at Kabbath-Ammon are found wall 
arcades decoratively applied just as in the Armenian 
churches. The second-named building indeed must, I 
should think, have been built by an Armenian master. 

When we compare with the Armenian churches a late 
stone-built church in the West, the little cathedral of 
Athens with its dome on a high drum at the intersection 
of four roofs, and its profusion of semi-barbaric carvings, 



it is impossible not to recognise that the church is almost 

The step to the brick churches is easily made, and it 
seems likely that the apsidal-transept plans were derived 
from the typical Armenian plan. 
Strzygowski has pointed out that the 
new influence probably made room 
for itself under Leo the Armenian, 
813-20. Of six churches on Mount 
Athos, the plans of which were 
noted by Dr. Covel about 1670, 
four, including the Catholicon of 
Vatopedi, had three equal apses 
pointing East, North, and South. 
He describes the church of Vatopedi 
as having a cupola standing on four 
pillars of ophite and as having been 
once all covered with mosaic, ^* there 
is yet in the inner Narthex the An- 
nunciation admirably done.^ Before fio. 41. Diagram plan 
the entrance to this Narthex hung a "^^ church of Vatopedi. 

, - 1^ . 1 ■• . . . 1 Mount Athos, with mono. 

nch embroidered ante-port given by gmms of Andronicua. 
Andronicus-Palaeologus, and showing 
his monograms. ^'The outward gates are of brass, and 
have the Salutation engraved on them.^ * Fig. 41 is a 
diagram from Covel's sketch of this church, which was 
built from 972. A second church of the same form on 
Mount Athos is that of Iviron, founded by George the 

* British Museum MS. Covel also saw the largest church on 
Patmos, which he says was built by Alexius Comnenus, as was shown 
hy an inscription. For Mt. Athos see Brockhaos and Kondakov. 


Iberian about 976. This Geoi^ who was the true 
founder of the Athos communities and b^an the Laura 
in 963, may have brought this plan directly from Ar- 
menia, or it may have come by way of Constantinople. 

As the Byzantine style in its own proper habitat changed 
in response to ideas derived from Armenia and the East, 
so there is reason to think that the art of the West 
generally, by absorbing fresh stimulus from Eastern sources, 
gradually changed its complexion from the conservative 
art which looked to Rome to the progressive art which 
developed through Romanesque to Gothic. These de- 
velopments were derived directly from the East — above 
all through the ports of the Mediterranean, the sea 
which through historic time has distributed culture. The 
chief points which concern us are the origin of vaulted and 
cruciform churches having central towers: that is, the 
typical Romanesque church. There are indeed many in- 
dications that tall and slight wall arcades like those of the 
ground storey of Pisa Cathedral ; towers roofed in gabled 
sections like some Grerman examples; and even perhaps 
the typical Norman notched and zig-zag ornaments, are all 
derived from oriental sources. 

The term Romanesque has been generally accepted for 
the art which, in many forms in Italy and the West, fills 
up the space between the decline of the first Christian art 
and the emeigence of Gk>thic. The earlier forms of these 
schools might better be described as Byzantesque, or 
Proto-Romanesque. More specifically Romanesque must 
be understood to mean a Northern school of art character- 
ised by movement rather than by adherence to tradition, 
and tending towards the development of Gothic. In its 


highest state it is represented by large cruciform churches 
having a cupola or tower over the crossing, with a circular 
apse and radiating chapels ; such a church was completely 
vaulted, and at last these vaults were supported by ribs. 
Dr. Strzygowski, in a series of books, has recently been 
studying the continuous action of Eastern art upon the 
West. He does not think that this influence was so much 
passed on through Rome as by way of Ravenna, Milan, 
and Marseilles. He finds the origin of Romanesque archi- 
tecture in Asia Minor, Armenia and S}nria, where at an 
early time churches are found which have many of the 
characteristics of Western work of the eleventh and 
twelfth centuries. He classes these Eastern churches into 
(i) Basilicas ; (2) Octagons ; (3) Domed Basilicas ; (4) 
Domed Cross-churches. He shows that some of the first 
were, in the ^^t, entirely covered with stone vaults. 

At Binbirkilisse, in Asia Minor, there is a large early 
basilica, the central vault of which was supported by 
chamfered transverse ribs. Another church has the aisles 
covered by a series of ramping transverse barrel vaults 
inclined upwards to the nave arcade. Gayet gives the 
plans of more than one Coptic church with barrel vaulted 
naves. More than half a century ago Lepsius described 
and gave the plan of a church which he found far up the 
Nile at Barkal by Dongola, which from the plan seems to 
have been entirely vaulted, and possibly to have had a 
cupola over the centre. {See Fig. 42.) He describes it 
as built as high as the windows of well-hewn sandstone, 
and above that of unbumt bricks covered with plaster. 
The whole was surrounded by a great court containing 
numerous convent ceUs. See also the plan of the North 




African basilica of Kef, Fig. 43, as restored by C. Diehl. 
The church of S. Fod^ Priolo, Syracuse, again was an 
entirely vaulted basilica of early date (see Byz. Zeit. 1899). 
Such vaulted basilicas seem to have been common in the 

Fig. 43. Christian Basilica, 
from Barkal near Dongola, 
Egypt, probably entirely 
vaulted, of sixth century (?) 

Fig. 43. Christian Basilica 
of sixth century at Kef, North 
Africa, partly vaulted, from 
Diehl's *< Justinian." 

East. St. Irene, Constantinople, is a modification. The 
tenth-century (?) writer known as the "Anonymous," 
describing S. Sophia, says it was at first of basilican form, 
and that Theodosius covered it with cylindrical vaults. 
This at least shows that the idea was familiar to those 
in Constantinople. 




The octagonal and circular churches, where a central dome 
borne on pillars was surrounded by a vaulted aisle, easily 
passed into the cross type by cu.*centuating the four cardinal 
sidejs, as was the case at Nyssa in the fourth century. 

The domed basilica is a very interesting approximation 
to the cross-church, but in it the arcades are continued 
across what would be the transepts in 
a fully developed cross-church. If 
Rohault de Fleury^s restoration is to be 
trusted, the fifth- or sixth-century church 
at Spoleto approximates to this class. 
Of domed cross-churches Strzygowski 
gives, as an instance, the ruins of a fine 
church at Philippi, more ftdly described 
in the Byzantinische Zeitschrift for 

I give a plan of a small cross-church 
or baptistery at Doclea in Montenegro, ^'°' 44- Plan of 

, r, / , . ., . ° church at Doclea 

probably of the sixth century. The Montenegro, c. sixth 
plan of a very striking church, St. Titus, century, 
Gortyna, Crete, which has been shown 
to me by Mr. Fyfe, is markedly cruciform, the arms being 
terminated by apses opening N. and S., the greajb apse being 
of the transverse triple arrangement shown in Fig. 6. 

Much has been said as to a late development of cruciform 
churches^ but I cannot find any arguments which show 
more than the fact that the exact late conditions are 
only found at a late time. Mr. Micklethwaite, in his 
most able tract tracing the development of the plan of 
the Saxon church, seems to make the cross-type come 
about as the result of a series of accidental approxi- 


mations made wholly in England; and Prof. Baldwin 
Brown, following the same lead, writes that the ^* early 
Greek cross-plan is not in the direct line of development 
which ultimately produced the Latin cross-plan of later 
mediaeval days. . . . The early Greek cross-plans in- 
volved the feature of a central pavilion. . • . This is not 
the same thing as the later central tower over the inter- 
section of the arms of a Latin cross.^ * 

I think that a truer view of the case would be arrived 
at in some such general statement as this : — ^There have 
been in the main two great and persistent types of church 
plan, and the final type of large Western churches was 
reached by combining the two. The first is the Congre- 
tional, basilican, or ship type of plan, with its long 
columned aisles ; the second is the martyrion, circular, or 
cross type, usually entirely vaulted. Both were in use from 
the age of Constantine, but in certain parts of the East, 
as in Asia Minor, North Syria, and Armenia, the latter 
type was particularly favoured, and ultimately almost 
prevailed over the basilican type. In the seventh, eighth, 
and ninth centuries, churches of the eastern cross-type were 
frequently built in the West, and finally the aisled cross 
church of Romanesque type was reached by bringing the 
two types together. An interesting sidelight on this trans- 
formation is given by the adoption and development in the 
West of the plan in which the transepts have apses opening 
north and south like Fig. 36. Hie Western, vaulted, 
Romanesque church, with its central lantern tower, is a 
translation of the Eastern central-cupola type into the 
terms of the basilican church. 

♦ " Art in Early England," vol. ii. p. 285. 



We surely might have been safely certain that from the 
time when the cross-symbol was well developed churches of 
that form would be specially delighted in, and of this 
there is overwhelming proof. St. Gregory of Nyssa, in 
the latter half of the fourth century, describing his 
proposed church, says : The ground plan is a cross ; that 
is, it is composed of four spaces which are connected, as 
one generally finds in the 
cross-shaped plan, by a 
circle set into the cross, 
I have called the figure 
a circle because it runs 
round like a ring, but 
its form is given by eight 
angles. Four sides of 
the octagon which lie 
diametrically opposite to 
one another connect the 
middle space through 
arches with the four 
contiguous spaces. The 
other four sides of the 

octagon do not open in the same way into like spaces, but 
a half circle embraces each of them, which at the top rests on 
the arch in a shell-like rounding. Thus there are eight 
arches in all, by means of which the squares and half circles 
which lie opposite to one another respectively, are put 
into connection with the middle space. Within the 
square-shaped spaces which lie opposite one another are 
to be placed the same number of columns [as in the 
octagon] ; they also will carry arches, and are indeed of the 

Fig. 45. Church at Nyssa, fourth cen- 
tury, from S. Gregory*s description. 


same constmction as those of the middle centre- 
space. Over these last eight arches (of the octagon) 
the eight-cornered space will be raised four ells 
higher to receive the windows placed above them ; above 
this is a conical roof. The breadth of each of the four- 
cornered spaces will be eight ells, while the length should 
be half as much. So also the half-circular niches show 
eight ells. The walls are three feet thick outside these 
measures. The structure is to be vaulted and of brick and 
stone ; the columns channelled and with capitals of the 
Ck>rinthian style ; the door jambs marble, with a frieze of 
reliefs above. 

I have condensed this interesting account, the earliest 
precise description of a Christian church, from Dr. 
Strzygowski^s rendering,* and give a diagram which 
should be compared with the slightly different figure in 
his XJcin Jsien. 

At about this same time St. Ambrose erected at Milan 
the Church of the Apostles ad modum cruAa. Later, 
Procopius tells us how the Chiurch of the Apostles in Con- 
stantinople was set out in cross-form. And Arculph has 
left the plan of the church at Jacobus Well, a perfect cross. 
Of the Abbey Church of Kamsay in England, built 968-^74, 
it is said that it was built after the pattern of a cross 
with a tower in the midst sustained by arches over the 
projecting arms. At the west end was a smaller tower. 

It may here be remarked that the early symbolic use of 
the cross-form is found very frequently in fonts, in Con- 
stantinople, in the Greek Islands, in Armenia, and in 
Palestine. As an example of a large church of the 
* Dw Dom fu Aachen. Bin Protest, 


cross-type, the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem may 
be cited, and that it was recognised as such is proved by 
the fact that it is described by the traveller Willibald 
in the eighth century as **a glorious building in the 
form of a cross.^^ 

In Sicily there are the ruins of several small cross- 
churches, which are plainly Byzantine work. One of the 
most perfect is S. Croce Camerina, Bagno di Mare, of 
which the stone-built central dome is still standing. 
(Kg. 47, A.) At Roccella di 
Squillace in Calabria is a most 
remarkable large ruined cross- 
church, which has the appearance 
of being a fully developed Roman- 
esque work, especially in its plan. 
It has been assigned to the sixth 
or seventh century, and comparison F1G.46. Cnidform Font from 
with other brick churches in Asia Palestine. 

Minor given by Strzygowski makes 

this less diiScult to believe. On the other hand, it has 
some resemblances to Murano, built about 1000, and is 
much what we might expect to find in a Norman church 
built by Calabrian Greeks. 

Caviglia takes the view that it was built as early as 
550-600, and says it was suppressed in 11 13. Bertaux, 
however, in his fine Vltalie Meridionakj 1904, points out 
its resemblance to Monreale, and considers it to be of the 
twelfth century — a view with which I must express agree- 
ment. This church was about 220 feet long, built of thin 
bricks and the choir vaulted, the roof above being a 
terrace homogeneous with the vault. {See Fig. 47, b.) 



R. de Fleury gives the plan of the foundations of 
the Church of St. Andrew at Rimini, which was of the 
sixth or seventh century, and cruciform. (Fig. 48.) 

Fia 47. A, Plan of S. Crooe Camerina ; B. S. Maria di SquUlace ; 
Ci Its CrypL 

Strzygowski sums up the characteristics of the Syrian 
and Asia Minor schools as being — the use of vaulting 
instead of wood roofs, the absence of an atrium, a west 
fafade having a porch between two towers, the use of 
piers as supports instead of columns, the addition of a 



square compartment before the apse, and the bringing of 
windows together in groups of two or three. He suggests 
that these details, as well as the general type of the church, 
went to form Western Romanesque. He also shows that 
the churches having an apse at the west end as well as 
at the east are first found in Egypt 
and Syria,* and he su^ests that even 
the radiating chapels of Romanesque 
churches were ultimately derived 
from the niches round about the apse 
in Egyptian convent churches, St. 
Martinis at Tours, built 472, being 
the link. 

It is certain then that in the East 
basilican churches were vaulted from 
an early time; and that churches 
were also as a continuous tradition 
planned in the form of the Cross. In 
these buildings piers frequently take 
the place of columns, and these piers 
were in Armenia recessed into a series 
of orders. Here also a central tower takes the place of a 
low dome. In these facts we may find the origins of 
Romanesque Architecture. From the seventh to the ninth 
centuries there were built in the West a series of '* Central 
Churches^ which have the closest resemblance to 

* The Cathedral of Canterbury as first made known to as by 
description was of this donble^nded t3rpe. It has been assumed that 
the W. apse of this church was built by Augustine, but this is not 
itrtain. The Carlovingian church of St. Gall was planned in this 
form from the first. There was a second double-ended church in 
England at Abingdon, both may have followed the Carlovin^^ian type. 


Fig. 48. Plan of destroyed 

church of St. Andrea, 



Eastern martyrion churches. Already at the end of the 
seventh century Wilfrid of York began at Hexham a 
church in the form of a round tower with four arms. In 
Milan, St. Satyrus, 879, and near Orleans, St. Geimigny des 
Pr&, c. 800, nearly repeat the Armenian plan of Fig. 38. 
Charlemagne^s church at Aachen faUs into the same class, 
and our King Alfred at Athelney built a church in 
the form of a cross with ends rounded in a quatrefoil. We 
may easily find a reason for the fonn of Wilfrid's church 
in the presence in England of the great Archbishop of 
Canterbury, Theodore of Tarsus, 669-690, but another 
cause besides the general influence of the East on the 
West for this form of church appearing in the West 
is to be found in the fact that Sjnrians and Armenians were 
pre-eminent as stonemasons. 

In the transition to Romanesque in the West, account 
will have to be taken of the place of North Africa in 
archaeological geography and of the probability that a 
stream of influence flowing from Alexandria by way of 
Carthage to the shores of Spain tempered the conditions 
in the West by a sort of Gulf-Stream of art. In the many 
churches of North Africa recently explored by Grsell 
and others, many of the details resemble Romanesque 
work, and at least five churches have been found of the 
counter-apsed form followed at St. Grail. 


From a photo by Mr. //. Ricardo 

BOKGO SAN DONNINO {See t>. 114) 

l'\\ce t. 90 



Wherever in Italy we see a school of architecture in 
course of formation, we shall find that it has its roots 
in a fi*esh Byzantine impulse. 

It has long been thought that the origins of Italian 
Romanesque are to be found in a supposed Lombardic 
school; but more recent examination has shown that 
the Lombardic monuments are themselves of compara- 
tively late date. 

When the long strife of Groths, Latins, and the armies 
of the Eastern Empire, had exhausted Italy, the Lombards 
conquered the Northern Provinces about 568, set up their 
capital at Pavia, and became the chief power in the land. 
The Exarchate, Rome, and the far South, however, remained 
outside of their direct sphere of influence. The Lombards 
were one of the Germanic peoples who, about this time, 
formed new nations within the confines of the Western 
Empire. They acknowledged relationship with the 
Saxons, Franks, Lotharingians, Bavarians, Suabians and 
Burgundians. When, later, Charlemagne subjected them 
to his empire, it involved only a change of dynasty, not of 
people. The significant facts in art during this era ar^-* 


the oontinuation of the early school in Rome, modified by 
influences reaching it from the Eastern capital; the 
waning of early Byzantine art in the city of the exarch ; 
and the slowly permeating element of barbarism which 
resulted from the Grermanic conquest. 

The Lombards must at first have taken over the tradi- 
tions of the land, and there is no evidence for anything 
like a distinct form of art in Lombardy until after the 
direct rule of the Lombard kings had passed away. 
Lombardic art is rather to be understood as a geographical 
than a dynastic distinction ; and some of the most charac- 
teristic works of ^* Lombard^ architecture were built as 
late as the twelfth century. 

The general style fit>m the sixth to the eleventh 
centuries Cattaneo has called Italo-Byzantine, and he has 
rightly denied the existence of any specific Lombard school 
during this time, except so far as it shows itself in bar- 
barism. He has also pointed out that the first active and 
indigenous school to arise had its centre at Venice. It 
was, indeed, in origin strictly Byzantine, but in Venice it 
found such a congenial soil that it soon took root, and 
bore even finer fruit than at the same time in its original 

Cattaneo, who knew every sculptured stone in Venice, 
and had the most penetrating insight for their classifica- 
tion, sorted out several as having belonged to St. Mark^s 
Church as rebuilt in 976, and in these are to be seen the 
dear evidences of the new growth. In Torcello Cathedral, 
rebuilt in 1008, we have the most perfect and assured 
example of this Venetian Byzantine style. The marble 
capitals of the nave are magnificent. Ruskin, who at least 


was a supreme judge of beauty, says that they are amongst 
the best he had ever seen as examples of perfectly calcu- 
lated effect from every touch of the chisel on the snowy 
marble. TorceUo is altogether a noble church. In the 
apse is one of the most striking mosaics in existence, being 
a single figure of the Virgin, habited in blue, on a gold 
field ; while at the west end, in opposition to her stately 
calm, is displayed the tragedy of the Last Judgment. 

It will be interesting to condense the description 
Beckford gave of it as it was in 1780 : — Beyond the altar 
appears a semi-circular niche with seats like the gradines 
of a miniature amphitheatre. Above rise the forms of 
the Apostles in red, blue, green, and black mosaic, and in 
the midst is a marble chair. The font which stands by 
the entrance has figures of homed imps clinging around its 
sides. The windows are closed with shutters of marble. 

The existing Church of St. Mark was begun about 1045, 
and consecrated in 1094, but there are preserved within it 
many fragments from an earlier church, beside the great 
collection of Byzantine marbles brought from all parts o£ 
the East. There is evidence that the early church was a 
small basilica, but it was rebuilt as a Greek cross. This 
is set out with a three-aisled body crossed by a three- 
aisled transept. The three piers about each angle of the 
crossing are large and square, forming together great 
masses which support the domes, while the other bays in 
the nave and transepts have ancient marble columns. The 
four arms, as well as the crossing, are covered by domes. 
Eastward the two aisles and the central span are termi- 
nated by apses. The walls of these apses are about ten 
feet thick, and large niches are cut, as it were, from the 

94 ST. MARK^S 

mass — three in the middle apse and five in each lateral 


Justinian^s celebrated Church of the Holy Apostles at 
Constantinople was, as we have seen, built in the form of 
a cross and had five domes. It is generally acknowledged 





: 7 



\ \ \ 

! 4 

Fig. 49. Part plan of St. Mark's, Venice, showing apses. 

that St. Mark^s follows the scheme of this church. It 
may be that even the niched apse was present in the 
prototype, for some early chiurches in Egypt and North 
Africa have this characteristic. Butler, describing the 
Church of St. John at Antinoe, attributed by legend 
to St. Helena, says that churches so ascribed "are 
always marked by a particular form of haikal (bema); 
witness the Red and White Monasteries, the church at 
Arment, and many others ; . . . a deep apsidal haikal^ 


with recesses all around it, and columns close against 
the wall."^ A basilica at Kef, North Africa, supposed 
to be of the sixth century, has a similar apse, the 
dome of which follows the scalloped form of the 
plan. Certain northern apses of the twelfth century, 
such as Terouanne and Dommartin, probably derive 
from St. MarkV At St. Mark^s there have been many 
additions to the eleventh-century church ; the western 
narthex and the high leaded cupolas 
rising above the dome are amongst _ 

them. This church is a treasuiy |HHP''m 
of antique columns of porphyry, ^^^V ^^^H 
fine marble, and alabaster, as well HP ^H 

as capitals and sculptured slabs, ^^ ^^ 

collected wherever they could be ^^^^ .#^^H 

found, and dedicated to it as jewels ^B| -d^L 

to a shrine. Many of the capitals ^^••••^--^^^ 
arefromthetimeofJustinianjsome ^"'TM^^inB^'"'^ 
of them are signed with his mono- 
gram, and others have BasUeuSy 
in monogram. These marbles, and the incrustation 
of the whole interior with mosaic figures and subjects 
on a golden ground, are its special glories. The sub- 
jects of the mosaics on the three domes of the central 
axis are, to the East the Pantocrator surrounded by 
Prophets ; in the centre the Ascension ; and to the West 
the Descent of the Holy Spirit. The mosaics were 
begun about i loo. The effect is well described by James 
Howell (1651) — "The inner part from the middle to 
the highest part thereof glistereth with gold, and the 
concavity of the vaults is enriched with divers goodly and 



ancient pictures which do present unto the spectator by 
their grave and venerable aspect, a kind of awe intermingled 
with piety and religion ; that which is from the gilding 
down to the pavement is well compassed and joined 
together with goodly tables of marble. The pavement 
is marble engraven with divers figures. In sum, there 
is no place in the whole church but is either decked with 

Fig. 51. Sections of marble moulding, from St Mark's, Venice. 

marble, gold, or precious stones."" Fig. 51 shows the type 
of mouldings — door jambs, and a cornice — found in late 
Byzantine churches in which it is easy to see the germs of 
Romanesque and even Gothic mouldings. These are from 
St. Mark's. 

Before leaving the Venetian School, Murano must just 
be mentioned. The church here was begun in 998, 
and the fine mosaic pavement is dated 1140. The plan 
is generally basilican, but it has a transept. Its chief 
features have been beautifully illustrated in the ** Stones 


of Venice ^ ; but it has now been greatly ruined by restora- 
tion. Compare the well-known triangular decoration of 
the east end of this church with the cornice of Fig. 35. It 
is still more like work at S.M. Pamma^Earistos in Con- 
stantinople. Murano, Torcello and St. Mark's are Greek 
churches on Italian soil. A l^end as to the Byzantine 
architects of St. Mark's has been printed by E. Muntz. 

The next schools to take on a distinctive character were 
those of Florence and Pisa. San Miniato was founded in 
1013, and is almost certainly the most advanced church of its 
date in Italy. It is commonly sai4 •that there was a great 
outburst of energy in architecture after the dreaded year 
1000 was overpast, and this seems to be borne out by the 
facts. A careful catalogue of the dates at which the churches 
in the cathedral quarter of Florence were founded, or are 
first heard of, shows that one — San Lorenzo — was founded 
by St. Ambrose in 393; one — San Giovanni (the Baptistery), 
c. 670 (?); one — Santa Reparata, 724 (?); in the ninth 
century there were two ; in the tenth, eight ; in the eleventh, 
seventeen ; in the twelfth, fourteen ; in the thirteenth, six. 
Moreover, in the eleventh century Florence was re-walled. 

Fiesole Cathedral represents in some degree the primitive 
Tuscan Romanesque. It was begun in 1028, and largely 
restored in 1206, while the campanile was built in 12 13 
by Master Michele. It is a small stone-built basilica, 
with a raised tribune over a crypt In comparison, San 
Miniato seems to mark a new departure. It is a basilica 
of nine bays, but every third bay is marked by a pier 
formed of four semi-shafts, making a quatrefoil on plan. 
One semi-shaft of each pier rises higher on the wall than 




the rest, and together with the corresponding one opposite 
supports an arch which spans the nave. In line with these, 
other smaller arches cross the aisles. The spaces between 
the arches are covei^ed with an open king-post roof, the 
timbers being painted with bright colours in patterns. 
The choir is raised high above a crypt, and the apse opens 
under an arch similar to the others. The walls and faces 

Fig. 5fl. A, Marble patterns from wall linings in the interior of Son Miniato, 
Florence ; and B, St Demetrius, Salonica. 

of the arches are cased in marble, black lines forming 
simple patterns on a white ground. The western front is 
also encrusted with marble, it is later than the rest The 
windows at the east end are filled with thin trans- 
lucent sheets of marble. It is a noble church, almost 
entirely free fi^m the barbaric element in Lombard 
buildings. The marble windows and linings show the 
Byzantine influence. (Plate 17.) 



Face p. 98 


San Giovanni, the celebrated bapti&tery of Florence 
is called by Villani and other early writers the Duomo, 
but from its close association with the church of 
Santa Reparata, which occupied the site of the present 
cathedral, it would appear that it was always more strictly 
the cathedral baptistery. San Giovanni and Santa 
Reparata are, after San Lorenzo, the oldest foundations in 
the city, but their exact date is uncertain, and they may 
have been contemporary. Santa Reparata had its west 
front some twenty-five or thirty feet nearer to the 
baptistery than that of the present cathedral. It was a 
basilican church with a detached campanile. ^^ Santa 
Reparata took its title of ^Pieve^ through its union with 
the basilica of San Giovanni, and not from having contained 
the baptismal font. The bishops used Santa Reparata for 
the most solemn functions, and it and San Giovanni were 
considered as one sole cathedral. As says Borghini, * In 
Santa Reparata was placed a distinctive seat for the 
bishop, built of marble, stable and firm.'^^* 

It is to be observed that the baptistery stands exactly 
opposite the west door of the cathedral, its own door 
being to the east and its altar to the west. We find a 
similar disposition at Pisa, and earlier still at Parenzo, 
where the baptistery, like the church, is entered from the 
atrium, but on the opposite side of the court. The space 
between Santa Reparata and San Giovanni was doubtless 
at first an enclosed atrium ; it was a burial-place up to 
the thirteenth century. 

According to the legend given by Villani, the Baptistery 

* A. Cocchi, " Le Chiese di Firenze." 1903. On S. Giovanni, see 
A. Nardini, 1902. 


had been a Temple of Mars. Roman fragments which 
have been found re-used in its construction may account 
for this story. San Giovanni is authentically mentioned 
in a document of 897. Writers have held that originally 
it had only one door where is now the apse, and that the 
altar was where the principal door now is. But with all 
probability there were always three doors, and from 11 77 
the two porphyry columns, the gift of the Pisans, have 
stood at the east door. Excavations made in 1895 discovered 
the old semi-circular apse, which, ^^ without doubt, was 
the original, supplanted by the present one.'' * (PL 18.) 

The mosaics of the tribune were the work of Fra Jacopo 
in 1225. This friar was one of the twelve original followers 
of St. Francis. The great mosaic of the octagonal vault, a 
colossal figure of Christ, twenty-five feet high, was vrrought 
by Andrea Tafi and his master Apollonio. In the apse was 
a throne for the bishop, and the altar under a tabernacle 
adorned with sculptures by Andrea Pisano. In 1329 
Piero di Jacopo was ordered to go to Pisa ^^ to see the 
bronze doors which are in the said city,'^ and to draw them, 
and to go on to Venice to search out a master to work new 
bronze doors for the baptistery. It seems that Piero 
did not succeed, for in 1330 the doors were allotted to 
Master Andrea di Ser Ugolino da Pisa, who employed 
Piero and others, and had the wax models completed in 
two and a half months. They were cast in Venice in 
1332, but buckled, and had to be straightened by Andrea. 
This interesting account goes to show that before this 
time Venice was the chief centre for such bronzework. 
As to the date of the baptistery in its existing form it is 

♦ Cocchi. 




Face p. loo 


most reasonable to conclude that the long series of deco- 
rative works, ending with Andrea^s bronze doors, were the 
finishings of a rebuilding undertaken not very long before 
we first hear of works there. As soon as these were com- 
pleted Santa Reparata was itself rebuilt as the Cathedral 
of Santa Maria del I^ore, and *^ Giotto^s Tower ^ super- 
seded the old campanile. If the Baptistery was the first 
work undertaken in a scheme for rebuilding the whole 
cathedral group this would account for its reputation sur- 
passing that of the old cathedral proper. Its earlier 
decorations are in many respects similar to those of San 
Miniato, and, as a baptistery, it falls into companionship 
with those at Pisa and Parma. At Pisa we find gi-anite 
columns like those at San Giovanni. Altogether it is 
probable that it was rebuilt in the eleventh century. 

This Florence Baptistery is one of the most individual 
and perfect buildings in the world-*a great octagonal 
chamber about ninety feet across, with a domical vault. The 
external roof is homogeneous with the vault, and it and 
the walls are entirely sheeted with plates of marble. The 
wall-mass is lessened in the interior by large recesses on 
the ground-floor and by galleries above. At the spring- 
ing of the vault the stone roof slopes against it like a 
continuous buttress. The floor is covered by a pavement 
of white, dark green, and sombre red marbles, arranged in 
small pieces, to form chevroned and rippling patterns 
which suggest running water, and were doubtless an allu- 
sion to the four rivers of Paradise, which are mentioned 
in the service for blessing the baptismal waters. In one 
place is a large square inlaid with the signs of the zodiac 
and pattemwork. (Plate r9.) 


Villani, speaking of this, says : ^* We find from ancient 
records that the figure of the sun made in mosaic, 
which says, ^engibo torte sol ciclos et rotoe igne,^ 
was done by astronomy, and, when the sun enters into 
the sign of Cancer, at mid-day it shines on that place 
through the opening above, where is the turret."^ This 
palindrome inscription can still be read surrounding the 
Sim figured in the centre ; but if the sun ever shone on it 
in the way Villani says its position would have been quite 
difierent, and there is not the least evidence that it has 
ever been moved. 

It stands in the most important part of the floor on the 
axis directly east of the font. It should be observed that 
this ornamental square of pavement figures accurately a 
rose window. Such a window is hardly to be found before 
the second half of the twelfth century. Even the filling 
recalls stained glass, and it seems to me that the panel is a 
translation of the pattern of a French window into 
Florentine marble. The inscription is in a fine late twelfth- 
century style, and we may safely conclude that the whole 
pavement, and the marble wall-linings, are not earlier than 
the year 1200. The inscription states that Florence, 
prompt in all good works, had the wonderful pavement 
made per signa polorum^ which must be the record of 
which Villani speaks, but it refers, in fact, to the signs of 
the Zodiac upon it. The iconographical scheme of the 
vaults is distinctly Greek, and Byzantine influence is well 
marked in the drawing of the mosaic figures. 

The marble casing and inlaid pattemwork are the 
chief characteristics of this early Florentine style, and 
these are evidently derived from Byzantine work. With 





Face p. 102 


the inlaid patterns are often found simple figures like the 
seven candlesticks, and, in the Baptistery, water-pots. 

Of external marble work, the Badia below Fiesole is 
the richest example. The facades of San Jacopo sopr^ 
Amo, of the Bishop^s chapel by the Baptistery, of San 
Stefano al Ponte, and of Santi Apostoli, are all very 

Close to Pisa is the remarkable church of San Piero a 
Grado, which is as early as, or earlier than, San Miniato, 
with which it has some affinities of style. Here, however, 
the striking feature is a magnificent series of very Byzan- 
tine paintings, which cover the whole of the walls above 
the arcades. The church has three apses at one end and 
a single apse at the other. Most writers see in one end of 
the church the remains of a Carlovingian building, but 
the most recent writer on the Pisan churches, Benvenuto 
Supino,* thinks that the ancient church was rebuilt in 
sections all ** after the 1000.^ 

In Pisa, in 1063, was founded what is, perhaps, the 

first of the great mediaeval cathedrals. It is a five-aisled 

basilica, crossed by a three-aisled transept Apses open 

from the ends of the transepts as well as to the east. 

Over the crossing rises a dome which, owing to the 

unequal spans of the nave and transepts, is elliptical in 

form. The plan closely resembles the church at Bethlehem, 

but, as we have seen, apsidal-transept churches were a 

favourite form in the East during the tenth century. 

This type is found again in St. Fedele, Como, the Duomo, 

Parma, and several Grerman Romanesque churches. Pisa 

* Arte Pisatto, 1904. 


is one of the great churches of the world. Its distin- 
guishuig feature is that of being built throughout of marble, 
yellow-white alternating with bands and inlays of dark 
green. Fine sculptured shafts which flank the west door 
are exquisite alike in workmanship and design, and most 
difficult to account for in the filiation of style. They 
appear to be the work of a Greek long settled in Italy, 
possibly from the Venice or S. Italian schools, urged on 
by Pisan energy and rewards. Above the lowest storey 
rise tier upon tier of arcades standing free from the walls, 
and sharply defined on the shadowed background. The 
church is surrounded by a broad paved platform, on which 
it seems to rest, like a great ivory shrine. The bronze 
doors entering the south transept are wonderful for the 
vividness and foi-ce of the composition and execution of 
the figure groups. The many-columned interior is most 
impressive. Tlie transverse arches under the dome are 
pointed. The small columns of the facade are of precious 
marbles, and the spandrils and other points of interest are 
inlaid with mosaic. This parcel mosaic work is parallel 
to that known as Cosmati work in Rome : both are derived 
from Greek sources. The tall blind arches of the ground 
storey recall Armenian work. R. de Fleury and Dehio 
have brought forward theories that the plan is the result 
of an alteration of scheme; but with this view Supino 
does not agree, he thinks It was laid out as we see it from 
the first. The first master of the works was Buschetto, 
who was followed by Rainaldo, who completed the church 
early in the twelfth century. It is a much argued point 
whether Buschetto was or was not a Greek as reported 
by Vasari; but of the Byzantine influence there cannot 




Face p. 104 


be a doabty and jet it is a work of wonderfiil origiiiaKty 
^ in whidi dements Byantine, Lombttd, Arab, are fused 
into a new and 8im|de MhcieJ* (For doors see Mate 20.) 

Hie dicolar bq>ti8ta7, idiicb stands on tbe same 
axis as tbe cathedral, to tbe west of it, was founded in 
1153, tbe master in diaige ct tbe works bdng Diotisalvi. 
It is nearly a bundred feet in diametor, with an inner 
aicaded ring on fine granite columns, said to have been 
faroo^t from Elba. These support an upper galkiy and 
a dome, or rather ome. The exterior has been much 
modified by a Uter addition above what was the aisle roof. 
There are four doorways, whidi open north, south, east, 
and west, and are adorned with beiuitiful sculptures. On 
tbe jambs of the east door are panels of the occupations 
of the twelve mcmths and other subjects. These are 
strikingly Byzantine, a David being figured just like a 
Byzantine emperor. The lintel shows the Baptism and 
other scenes from the life of St. John. This is clearly 
modelled on a late Boman sarcophagus front. Above, in 
a row, are half-figures of Christ, Mary, and John, and four 
angels and four evangelbts alternately ; at the ends are 
palm-trees. The shafts on either hand are carved like those 
of the west door of the cathedral, and are equally beautiful. 

The great cylindrical campanile was b^n by Bonano 
in 1 174- Above a solid storey there are six stages of 
open arcades like those of the church. It may be said to 
have been designed by rolling up the west front of the 
catbedraL The whole magnificent group of buildings 
stands in a flat grassy close on the outskirts of the town, 
and is seen shining against a background of the marble 
mountains from whence they were hewn. 



Perhaps earlier than the cathedral, and of more interest, 
in that it has been less restored, is the Church of San 
Paolo on the south bank of the river. This is a plain 
T-shaped basilica, with a dome over the crossing and an 
apse to the east. The west front is arcaded like the 
cathedral, and not having been scraped, the colour of the 
yellowed marble, set off with strips of dark green, shows 
how necessary to a building is its own skin. Some little 
carvings above the door might be of ivory. This facade 

Fig. S3. Grouped shafts 
from St. Michele, Lucca. 

Fig. 54. Panel from the 
front of St. Paolo, Pisa. 

and the dome probably date from 1118-1148. The 
arcade of the interior has pointed arches which may be 
dated c. 1050. 

The Pisan style, as we have said, diflTers from the 
Florentine in the use of solid marble instead of casings, 
but it was undoubtedly influenced in some respects by the 
latter. For instance, the curious type of pcmel found in 
the tympana of the arches, which has been called the 
Pisan Lozenge, and which is formed of a series of bands 
recessed one within another, is evidently a translation of 
the inlaid panels found in similar positions in Floi*entine 



Face p. 1 06 



work. In the first place these panels come from the East ; 
in Fig. 52 those on the left are from St. Miniato, and those 
on the right are from Salonica. 

Lucca and Pistoia follow Pisa, but in Lucca the Lombard 
influence is more marked. At San Michele, Lucca, the 
marble structure is inlaid 
all over with an extra- I 
ordinary complexity of 
ornament, knot-work, foli- 
age and beasts. Thirfront 
is said to be the work of 
Guidetto, at the end of the 
twelfth century. As points 
of proof that there was 
Greek influence at work in 
the Pisan school, I give 
rough sketches of inter- 
twined pillars from San 
Michele, Lucca, and San 
Paolo, Pisa, and also the 
David panel from the bap- 
tistery at Pisa. The school 
of Pisa was so much enam- 
oured of tiers of slender 
arcades screening the solid wall that the gable of San 
Michele, Lucca, is carried up some thirty or forty feet 
higher than the roof pi-oper only for the purpose of 
providing room for more arcades, and to serve as a wide 
basis for a colossal statue of the Archangel. Apart from 
this exaggeration, one surpassing source of mystery and 
beauty which could be obtained in no other way was dis- 



f : 

!'■■■■■ g^^^\\\^ 








_j c c^ y^ 

Fig. 55. King David from sculptured 
jamb of the Baptistery, Pisa. 


covei*ed and made available by this means. As the sun 
lights up the ranks of free-standing arcades, their sharply 
defined shadows are thrown against the marble wall behind, 
so that arcades of light are countercharged against arcades 
of shadow, while an infinity of intricacy results from per- 
spective and from the ever-moving ranks of shadows. At 
San Michele, Lucca, the glittering of the twisted, sculp- 
tured, and inlaid columns accentuates still further this 
bewildering effect. Fig. 56 shows some of these patterns. 
The Lucca inlays are translations in local marble of the 

Fig, 56. Examples of inlaid marble pillars from St. Michele, Lucca. 

Pisa mosaics. Originally the free standing arcades are 
derived, I believe, from open arcades of small scale, 
which were often used round the top storey of the exteriors 
of apses forming galleries. 

Up to a comparatively late time all that we can properly 
call Lombardic is the more barbaric element found asso- 
ciated with the current Italo-Byzantine style of Northern 
Italy. SanV Ambrogio, Milan, and San Michele, Pavia, 
are remarkable structures in that the walls and points of 
resistance are more exactly organised for the work they 
have to do than in churches of the basilican type. The 
nave and aisles are both vaulted, and the high vaults are 
supported on diagonal ribs. Such churches, it is evident, 


form important links in the transition to Gothic; and 
about the vaults of Sant* Ambrogio have raged most 
violent blasts of controversy, especially since French 
writers have seen in such ** ogival vaults ^ the particular 
mark of Gothicness. For long it was claimed that Sant^ 
Ambrogio in its entirety was not later than the ninth 
century ; on the other hand, recent French writers have 
asserted that the vaults are ** frankly Gothic,^' and were 
built in the twelfth century, according to a new method 
imported fi-om France. The only certain dates known are 
that of the altar made in 835, and of the campanile, which 
dates from 11 29. The most recent Italian authorities 
(such as Venturi — "Storia dell' Arte Italiana,'' 1903, who 
cites Stiehl, 1898) accept the view that the vaults are of 
foreign fashion derived from Burgundy, and were about 
contemporaneous with the campanile, and, indeed, that 
the whole church in its present form, with the exception 
of fragments which have been re-used, belongs to this 
time. Later, in 1196, a part of the church fell, and at 
that time the ciborium of the altar was re-made, with 
beautiful pediment sculptures modelled in stucco, Sant' 
Ambrogio has a fine arcaded atrium, and its door jambs 
are highly decorated with intei*lacing patterns and other 
sculptures. The simplicity and large scale of the interior 
covered with its ribbed vault is most impressive. On the 
right and left of the Nave are two isolated porphyry 
columns, one of which supports a bronze serpent and the 
other a cross. The brazen serpent is called that of Moses, 
which indeed it represents, as the Old Testament type of 
the cross. On the left is a magnificent ambo, and in the 
centre of the apse the golden altar, with its ciborium ; 


around the apse are mosaics, of one of which I give a 
figure from a drawing by Mr. Alfred Powell (Fig. 57). 

The difficulty as to the 
remarkable vaults of SanV 
Ambrogiois hardly lessened 
by the view just set forth, 
because if the campanile 
was built in 1129, it is 
reasonable to suppose that 
the main body of the 
church would have been 
completed before this an- 
nexed feature was begun, 
and that therefore the 
building of the church 
must date from early in 
the twelfth century, and 
it is doubtful whether any 
ogival vaults can with cer- 
tainty be pointed to in 
Burgundy or the lie de 
France before 11 20. The 
vaults of Sanf* Ambrogio 
are, moreover, no timid 
experiments, but of large 
span and boldly executed. 
As we shall see, how- 
ever, in the next chapter, 
the Norman school, which seems to have been in close 
contact with that of Lombardy, was in possession of this 
method of erecting ogival vaults before iioo; and it 

Fig. 57. Figure in mosaic from the apse 
of St. Ambrogio, Milan. 








seems that, on the evidence, we are compelled to suppose 
that Sant' Ambrogio derived its scheme of construction 
from Normandy. It may be that the origin of the ogival 
vault is to be sought for in Normandy, or even in 
England ; but there are many reasons for thinking that the 
seed idea, like so many others, came from the East. (PI. 22.) 
Choisy says that ribbed vaults (of small scale) were 
known to the Arabs one hundred and fifty years before 
they appeared in the work of our church masons. He 
cites and illustrates as examples of Voutes sur nervures 
the chapel in the mosque of Cordova, and from Armenia the 
narthex of the chapel of Akhpat. Street, in his book on 
Spain, describes and illustrates the mosque at Toledo, 
which he says is known to have been already in existence 
in 1086, and was practically unaltered when he saw it. It 
is a square divided into nine small compartments, each 
one being vaulted with rather intricately ribbed cupolas — 
" a little vault with intersecting ribs thrown in the most 
fantastic way across each other and varied in each com- 
partment." Again Street, in his account of the Templar 
church at Segovia and the Chapter-house at Salamanca, 
shows that ribbed cupolas were erected in churches (in the 
twelfth century), which certainly derived the disposition 
of their ribs from Moorish examples. The Moorish and 
Armenian examples are none of them quadripartite vaults, 
and they are of comparatively small size ; they do, however, 
furnish the principle of supporting vaults by independent 
ribs. As to the true ogival form it is to be pointed out that 
the most characteristic form of Byzantine vault from the 
time of Justinian was the cross-vault which did not form 
level penetrations but ros^ tQ^ard tb^ centre, thus forming 



domical cross-vaults. This is just the type followed (with 
the addition of ribs) by the earliest ogival vaults- 
As for ribs, the dome of Sta. Sophia is not a plain surface 
within, but is thickened at intervals by wide projecting 
ribs. Now we know that this dome was rebuilt in the 

Fig. 58. Ribbed vaulu from the church of Skripou in Greece. 

last quarter of the tenth century: and an Armenian 
chronicle cited by Schlumberger says that this was done 
by an Armenian architect, Tirdates. I find, moreover, 
that in the Byzantine church at Skripou the vaults have 
diagonal ribs of brickwork. This church is probably of 
the eleventh century, as we have seen. I give in Fig. 58 
particulars of these vaults, kindly furnished to me by 
Mr. Schultz. 



The church of St. Benedetto, Brindisi, in the centre of 
the Byzantinised part of Italy, has ogival vaults. And 
of about the same date in the choir-vaults of Cefalu 
Cathedral, in Sicily (begun c. 1 132) diago- 
nal ribs appear; the mosaic work passes 
over them, as over the cells between, 
but there is every reason to suppose that 
here, too, they are structural.* These 
examples, and doubtless many more could 
be adduced, seem to point to the East as 
being the birth-land of this form of vault ; 
and it may even be possible that the S. 
Italian and Milan vaults were indepen- 
dently derived from Byzantine vaults 
rather than from Normandy, especially as 
their ribs are of brick, like those in the 
East. Eastern stalactite vaulting may be 
a branch development of similar experi- 
ments. The derivation of Western ogival 
vaults from Eastern ribbed cupolas would 
fall in with the fact that the Angevin 
vaults, which seem to be just as early as ' 
those of the De de France, are rather 
ribbed domes than cross-vaults. _ ^„ ^, Pillar from 
the crypt of Modeoa 

When a well-defined school of art, dis-^^^*^*'^ 
tinct from the Italo-Byzantine, arose in Lombardy in the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries, the mixture of barbaric 
elements in the ornamentation gave to it a wonderful 
liveliness of fancy and an expression of struggling energy. 

* All these Italian ogives may prove to be derived from France. 


The walls teem with dream-fancies of knotted dragons and 
fighting men, while the pillars rest on great lions tearing 
their prey (Plate i6 and fig. 59). 

I can here do no more than name some chief centres 
where characteristic examples of this vigorous school of 
art are to be found, Cremona, Aosta, Verona, Como, 
Modena, Parma, Piacenza, Ferrara, Borgo San Donnino, 
and Cortazzone, and refer to Venturi^s fully illustrated 

Much has been written about a school of ^'Comacini 
Masters,^ who are supposed to have carried on archi- 
tecture in North Italy, and to have been I'esponsible for 
the supposititious school of early Lombard art ; but it is 
generally held by scholars that the word does not refer to 
a centre at Como, but should be understood as signifying 
an association or guild of masons, and that the Magistri 
Comacini heard of in the seventh century were of no 
special importance. It does seem probable, however, that 
the expansion of N. Italian art over many parts of Europe, 
which appears to have taken place in the eleventh and 
twelfth centuries, may be traced to the fact that in Italy 
the guilds had privileges which made members free to 
travel at a time when Western masons were attached to 
manors or monasteries. 

In the twelfth century a new phase of art appeared in 
Rome. There had been an interval of some two centuries 
when mosaic working seems to have been forgotten. The 
mosaics of San Clemente, S. M. Maggiore, and S. M. 
Trastevere are the first of the new school. Many pave^ 
ments were also wrought of morsels of porphyry and 


precious marbles, for the most part obtained from antique 
columns, and arranged in patterns, taking usually the 
form of meandering bands surrounding discs, in a style 
of work usually called '^ Opus Alexandrinum,^ but parcel 
mosaic might be more explanatory. 

Similar mosaic, but smaller in scale, and with gold 
tessene added, was also much used for pulpits, bishops^ 
thrones, altar tabernacles, and Paschal candlesticks, being 
set in panels and bands sunk in the marble. This work, 
for which Rome became famous, was widely distributed, 
especially in the South. It has generaUy been called 
Cosmati work — ^from Cosmas, one of a family of marble- 
workers. This family, however, was not the first to 
practise this form of workmanship. Works were already 
described at this time as being decorated *^ Romano opere 
et maestria.'*' In one inscription the artists are called 
^^Magistri doctissimi Romani.*" A master who was 
brought from Rome to make the marble-work for Edward 
the Confessor^s shrine signed himself thereon ^^Civis 
Romanus,^ and exactly the same formula occurs at 
Cometo and at Civita Oastellana. Examples of this work 
are found which were executed in the first half of the 
twelfth century.* Peter and his brother Nicholas, followed 
by the son and grandson of Nicholas, worked at Cometo 
from 1 143 to 1209, and Paul and his four sons made the 
tabernacle in Saint Laurence outside the Walls, beginning 
in 1 148. Cosmas, mentioned above, was working in the 
first years of the thirteenth century. Still another chief 
6f a school was Vasalletti, whose inscription, signing the 
cloisters of St. John Lateran, has recently been found, and 
* A late example of this work is given in Fig. 122. 


the candlestick of S. M. Ckwmedin, was the work of a 
certain Pascal, ^^ vir doctus et probus.^ The first artist 
of this Roman school of which we have any knowledge 
was one Paul, who was working about iioo. 

Pavements of ^ Opus Alezandrinum,^ similar to those 
in Rome, which are found in many Byzantine churches, 
must have been the point of departure for the Roman art 
Mr. Frothingham in the American Journal qf Archzology^ 
1894 ^^d 1895, has made a careful study of this point, 
and has proved that the Roman art originated as one 
branch of Byzantine art, which at about the same time 
formed schools in Venice, in Rome, and in South Italy 
and Sicily ; while in the East a parallel development was 
taking place in Coptic work. Some wall-mosaics of the 
eleventh century at Daphne, by Athens, which are of this 
kind of marble work, have lately been cited as further 
evidence by Millet, and the beautiful pavements at 
St. Luke^s monastery should also be referred to in this 
connection. To have strictly followed the productive 
influences I ought to have grouped Rome and South Italy 
with Venice as centres of new life in art, and I may once 
more point out that the decorative use of mosaic at 
Pisa and the marble inlays of Florence and Lucca may be 
traced back to Byzantine originals. 

The bronze gates of St. PauPs outside the Walls, made 
in Constantinople by Staurachios in 1070, still remain a 
memorial of the artistic suzerainty of the Greeks at this 
time. There are others of the same origin and of about 
the same date at St Mark's at Venice, Salerno, Amalfi, 
and four or five other places. 

Another artistic dynasty that must be mentioned is 



Face p. ii6 


th.* of Skfly "^*t^;7^ Count. "^^ 
I-M« «HMB ^mvaOM «™*^j,_in^ tins tune t««'r 

sn wo.-ii:j •* ^^^ col---- «^ 

*^^ JS^ the Jfort««^ Xmt Atho., Rome, ««1 

*''*=* ^frntTmak^ •*»°^f;!l Chapel h- a domed 

•* !^™-rT jo"*^ *?. Jeered with Greek mouio; 
T^J^ ^'':^Z rSbiC' Utin. .xid Greek. 
^^ the «.«»iP«?J' f!,rthe mnain. of a complete 
ri* iS^tonu- «*»« ^'''lir The abbey church of 
■^loVT^-^^tirnSi* of -bout 330 feet long, 
^!^ei»ofgi«^'^'^«aic The««ni-domeof 

Se -P- ^ Si! T^ figure, whichri^^it were. 



behind the level cornice at the springing of the conch, as 
seen in the shadow, is one of the most wonderful concep- 
tions of art. The nimbus of the head must be some seven 
or eight feet across. Below, of more normal scale, are 
enthroned the Virgin and Child between two Archangels, 
and the Apostles follow. At the side of the church is a 
cloister of marvellous beauty, the marble columns of which 
are all exquisitely carved or inlaid with mosaic; and in 
one angle is the fountain known to every one. (PI. 23.) Some 
of the carved columns of this cloister are, although smaller 

Fig. 6a Tomb of two masons, una animo laborantts. Of the 
seventh or eighth century. Now in a museum at Venice. • 

and later, so much like the door-pillars at Pisa spoken of 
above that I am inclined to think that the Pisan carver 
must have come from South Italy. To the west and north 
of the church are bronze doors. The north doors are the 
work of Barisanus of Trani, who, about 11 79, wrought 
similar bronze doors for Trani and Ravello. The western 
ones were made in 11 86 by Bonanus of Pisa, whose name 
may still be read on them. Plate 21 shows similar doors 
at Benevento, 

On the mainland, in the south of the Italian peninsula, 
at Ban, Otranto, Bitonto, and other places, are to be 
found works conceived in a style mixed of Sicilian and 



Face p. ii8 


Lombardic elements, and of extraordinary beauty and 
vigour. (Plate 24.) 

Many memorials exist of the individual artists who 
worked in Italy during the times with which we have been 
dealing (Fig. 60)9 but I reserve what is to be said in 
regard to mediaeval craftsmen to a later page. 

If I have here seemed to insist overmuch on the Byzan- 
tine factor in Italian art, it may be urged that I have 
only applied in detail the truism that during the earlier 
Middle Ages Constantinople was the artistic capital of the 
world. Until about the year 1000 there was little in 
Western art beside Byzantinism and barbarism, and up to 
this time the products of the various schools might better 
be called Byzantesque than Romanesque. 



In Gaul, early Christian art was a provincial variety of 
the art of Rome. In the fourth century organised Christi- 
anity spread over the whole country and reached Britain. 
At Sion an inscription mentions the repair of a church in 
377, and the foundations of the church at Silchester in 
Britain must go back as far. The most ancient existing 
church in France is the Baptistery of St John at Poitiers, 
which dates from the sixth century ; and at Grenoble and 
Jouarre there are remnants of seventh-century works. 
Although the remains are few, records show that great 
churches existed in all the important cities of Graul — at 
Lyons, where the church is described by Fortunatus ; at 
Tours, where the basilica of St. Martin was rebuilt about 
472 ; at Paris, where the basilica of Sts. Peter and Paul 
was built by Clovis ; and at Clermont, where a basilica is 
described by Gregory of Toura. At Nantes, in the sixth 
century, above the centre of a church rose a high structure 
richly painted, and probably of wood, *^ like the peak of a 
mountain"^; and such spirelike pavilions seem to have 
been general m Gaul. A large number of the early 


churches were of wood. Towers proper were attached to 
churches from the fifth or sixth century. If annexed, 
they were usually square; if isolated, circular, like the 
round towers of Ireland. The interior walls of the main 
building were covered with paintings, as was the case in 
the churches at Jarrow and Monkwearmouth, built by 
Benedict Biscop. The floors were frequently of mosaic, 
and polished marble columns were obtained where possible. 
The high altar stood under a ciborium; beneath the 
altar was the confessio; and across the triumphal arch 
rested a beam, which carried the cross, candles, and relics. 
The later ornamentation, both in France and England, 
was a variety of the Byzantesque styles. We have at 
Bricksworth, Northamptonshire, the remains of a fine 
basilican church of the seventh century. 

The rising of the Carlovingian dynasty marked a period 
of transition in the arts corresponding to the political and 
social changes of the time. Roman traditions in Western 
£iux)pe had fallen into almost complete decay save for the 
infiltration of Byzantine elements. The coming of the 
Franks also brought an element of barbarism. The school 
of art fostered by Charlemagne formed a rallying-point, 
and, directly from the East as well as by contact 
with Ravenna and Rome, it absorbed influences which 
were afterwards distributed over Germany, France, 
and even Lombardy. The church at Aachen, built 
796-804, as a national monument, and attached to 
Ch€U*lemagne^s palace, is the most typical building of the 
epoch. It was built by Master Odo of Metz. An 
octagonal central area is surrounded by an aisle sixteen 
sided to the exterior. A fine vaulted gallery surmounts 



the aisle, and the centre is covered by a dome. A pro- 
jecting porch to the west, with two large staircases, rises 
high above the aisle. The original eastern termination 
was destroyed when a fine Grothic choir was begun in 


Fig. 6i. Plan of the Palatine Church of Aachen. 

1353* Its foundations have been found and show that it 
was square-ended and small. The altar and ambo cannot 
have stood here, but in the east part of the central area. 

A collection of ancient materials was brought from 
Theodoric^s palace at Ravenna, and re-used in the 
structure, and some white marble capitals still surmount 


the external pilasters. The dome was covered with a 
mosaic of Christ and the twenty-four elders : Ciampini has 
given an engraving of this, the Elders had risen from their 
thrones to oflTer their crowns to Christ. Above were the 
Evangelists, and the field was set with stars:* the floor 
was also of coarse mosaic. Bronze balustrades which fill 
the openings of the gallery are of great beauty, and 
appear to be more ancient than the church. There are 
also bronze doors, and in the porch is preserved a bronze 
pine-cone three feet high, which probably stood in the 
atrium, forming the fountain, like the more celebrated 
pine-cone at old St. Peter^s. It bears an inscription 
referring to the four rivers of Paradise and is said to be 
of the tenth century. It was given by Abbot Udahic, and 
bears an inscription referring to the Eden Spring — *^ the 
source of all waters which flow on earth [Gihon gently 
flowing] : Pishon holding gold : Euphrates fertilising the 
land, and arrow-swift Tigris : Abbot Udalric piously 
gives thanks to the Creator.^ Altogether this is a mo«t 
impressive building, and is in many respects carefully 
constructed, especially in the vaulting of the aisles and 
of the gallery. In the latter the alternate compartments 
rise at an angle against the central octagon, so as better 
to support the great dome. The masonry closely resembles 
Theodoric^s tomb. Dr. Strzygowski in a recent study of 
this monument shows good reasons for thinking that the 
church is not to be regarded as a mere imitation of 
St. Vitale, but that it is one of a series of buildings 
belonging to the ** Central type"" built under Eastern 
influences. He supposes the upper storey of the west porch 
* These mosaics were destroyed in 1719. 


to have had an opening like the balcony of Syrian Churches, 
and that the drcalar stair-tunets cm either hand rose as 
towers. He supposes that the bronze balustrades of the 
interior as well as the bronze doors were made for the 
position they now occupy ; in any case it is known that 
there was an important school of bronze casting established 
at this time in Grermany. At the present moment 
prodigious ^ restoration ^ works are in progress. 

Another monument of this age is the gateway of the 
Abbey of Lorsch, founded in 764. This gateway may 
probably be dated about 800. 

The well-known plan of the monastery of St. Gall, a 
great church with apses east and west, and two round 
towers, also belongs to this time. It is especially interesting 
as giving us the disposition of the buildings in a large 
monastic establishment in the early Middle Ages, and 
shows how, even at this time, the type had become fixed. 
The church has transepts, giving it Uie cross form. 

In France, the remarkable Church of S. Grermigny des 
Pr^ a square with semicircular projections on each fiice, 
and a lantern-tower rising on four piers over the centre, 
consecrated in 806, and the old nave of the Cathedral of 
Beauvais, built in 987-^8, are the best examples of the 
Carlovingian proto-Romanesque. 

In the German Empire, especially along the Rhine, 
there was a great revival of art from about 975 to 1000, 
following on the introduction of Byzantine artists by 
Otho II.,who married Theophania,daughter of Romanus II., 
the Emperor of Constantinople, in 972. This Germanic- 
Byzantine style is sometimes called Othonian^ and it 
affected evexy branch of craftsmanship, especially miniatures 



Face p. 124 


of manuscripts, ivory earrings, and bronze testing. Sev«,d 
monuments of the time of the Emperor Hen^ 11. (di^ 
io2A> show the height to which this school of art attained. 
On Ae right hand of the choir of Charlemagne's church 
at Aachen stands as a pulpit the ambo, a work of greal 
beauty and splendour, given to the church by Henry II. 
It hM panels of carved ivory, surrounded by sdver-gilt 
borders, set with cameos and jewels. It U mscribed hoc 
orvs AMBONis Avao GEMMisftVE MicAOTis, &C. The carved 
ivorv panels are early Christian work from Alexandria. 
The bronze-works of Hildesheim also belong to this 
'od- These are the famous doors with panels of figure 
^efi and the large spiral pUlar ornamented with a con- 
tinuous ribbon of Bible stories, at the foot of which the 
four rivers are poured out of vases. These were wrought 
der Bishop Bemward in 1015-1022. The very beautiful 
"° n-branched candlestick at Essen, the branches deco- 
^led'with open-work knops, and terminated with flower- 
'JLoed nozzles, should also be mentioned It seenas to 
fimein a symbolic way the Tree of Paradise in the centre 
f the world, for around the base are little images of the 
*'aarter»— OaiKNs. Occidens, AauiLo— the fourth being 
? t. The Gloucester candlestick, now in South Kensington 
Museum and given to Gloucester early in the twelfth 
tury, is» I **"°^' *° example of this German school of 
Sonze working. If a book illustration is to be trusted 
there is a* Hildesheim a candlestick almost exactly similar 
lied Bemwaid's. The wonderful thirteenth-century 
^dlestick at Vienna with seven branches and open-work 
foot and stem is clearly alUed to the school represented by 
the Gloucester candlestick, for which see Plate 25. 


The great bronze-working school of Huy and Dinant, 
which produced remarkable works early in the twelfth 
century, and became the pre-eminent market for them, 
must have been an offshoot of the Othonian art-dynasty. 
The monk Theophilus, the earliest systematic writer on 
the arts of the Middle Ages, who probably wrote at the 
end of the twelfth century, and in whose work a large 
share of Byzantine tradition survives, seems to have 
belonged to this Rhenish school of art, which, in the two 
centuries following the time of Charlemagne, was the chief 
on this side of the Alps ; and from it was largely derived 
the art of England during this time. 

The next impulse upon Germany was to come from 
Lombardy, the neeurest Italian neighbour state, where, as 
we have seen, great stimngs in art were manifesting 
themselves from about the year looo. The eleventh 
and twelfth-century German buildings, especially along 
the Rhine, at Cologne, Mainz, Worms, Speyer, Bonn, 
and many other places, closely resemble Lombardic 

As early as 1107 there is a record in the chronicle 
of the Abbey of Rolduc, in Hainault, that its crypt was 
built scenuxte Longobardino by Brother Embricon and his 
friend, who came from the environs of Toumay. Lombard 
masters about this time seem to have been called to work 
all over Europe. Bayet says that Lombard masters built 
a Russian cathedral in 1138-1161, and we are told how 
St. William soon after the year 1000 took Lombardic 
artists to Dijon and Normandy. Again, Street cites a 
Spanish document of 11759 in which Raymundus Lam- 


bardus, with four other lambardoSy agreed for certain works 
at Urgel — surely these too are Lombards, 

In Italy itself the Lombards seem to have been in 
request; a record shows that certain building work and 
sculpture at Treviso was executed by Pietro Lombardo 
and his sons. 

Lombardic work is doubtless to be found in many places 
outside of Italy. There are scattered widely over Europe, 
from Vienna to Gloucester, and from Lund in Sweden to 
Spain, many buildings strikingly similar in some respects 
of detail to Lombard buildings. And there was a greater 
uniformity of style in building in the twelfth century than 
at any other time. Probably the Lombard masons worked 
under conditions which made it easy for them to travel, and 
this may in part account for the i^uests made for their 
services, and for the wide circle of their influence. 

The most typically German characteristic is the use of 
double apsidal terminations, accompanied by a western 
as well as an eastern transept. Such double-ended 
churches early arose in the East, as we have seen, in con- 
sequence of changing the direction of churches which at 
first had their doors to the east and apses to the west. 
Our own Canterbury, in the tenth century, was an 
example. In Germany, as early as the time of Charle- 
magne, this type was adopted irrespective of its original 
cause, and was followed in the plan of St. Gall. 

The noblest church of this form is Mainz Cathedral. 
The east choir dates from about iioo, and the western 
choir, which is of trefoil form, is a century later. There 
is a lantexn-tower over each crossing, and four other 
towers. Without and within, notwithstanding much 


restoration, this is a superb building, sombre and strong, 
and built of a beautiful reddish stone. 

Another characteristic Rhenish plan is that in which 
the transepts as well as the eastern limb have apsidal 
terminations. This plan also, as before said, was a 
favoiuite form in the East. St. Mary in the Capitol, 
Cologne, consecrated in 1049, is of this kind ; so is the 
Holy Apostles, in the same city, and St. Quirinus, at Neuss. 
The latter is a fine late Romanesque church, not finished 
till the thirteenth century. We have seen that in North 
Italy there are some churches of this form, and that it is 
ultimately to be ti*aced to the East It was doubtless 
introduced into Germany on the great wave of Byzantine 
influence which flowed in in the time of Otto II. (Plate 26.) 

A third characteristic feature is the use of tall towers, 
genemlly in pairs, rising at the re-entering angles of the 
transepts, closely resembling Lombardic campanili. This 
Romanesque style formed the typical German expression 
in architecture, and German builders are found again and 
again reverting to it, long after the introduction of Gothic 
from France in the middle of the thirteenth century. It 
is a fine building-style, especially happy in the massing of 
parts ; but in detail a little dry, and lacking in sculpture. 

The harshness of style was doubtless entirely modified 
by extensive schemes of painting (for example the splendid 
ceiling at Hildesheim), and by many noble bronze furnish- 
ings — light coronse, vessels, and doors. 

The Romanesque church, with its transepts and square 
lantern-tower rising over the crossing, is only another 
version of the Eastern scheme of building, the lantern- 
tower taking the place of the high central dome. 



Face p. 128 


Lombard and Rhenish influence is evident in many 
centres of early French Romanesque. In the South-west 
of France in the eleventh century there was a school 
which definitely followed oriental models, doubtless 
directly derived from over-sea. From the admixture of 
these influences with the earlier traditions issued in this 
new time of growth many lovely varieties of building. 
St. Front, Perigueux, is the most famous example of the 
South-western school of Perigord: it dates from about 
HOC. But there are other examples of the same type 
still earlier. St. Front is a cruciform domed church 
something like St. Mark^s, Venice, from which it is often 
said to have been copied, but it is even more like St. 
Barnabas in Cyprus, and rather seems to belong to a series 
of churches built imder Eastern influence — a southern wave 
of Byzantinism spreading along the shores and over the 
islands of the Mediterranean, Cyprus, Crete, Sicily. 
Street refers to two or three churches in North Spain 
which are stone vaulted, and which he thinks may belong 
to the tenth century. One of these, a small church, has 
the transverse triapsidal plan which I think clearly shows 
the influence of the secondary Byzantine style. In the 
Spanish churches the central lantern often remained a 
dome till late in the Middle Ages. In the main we shall 
I believe, find that French Romanesque had its roots in the 
Rhine and the Mediterranean, and that certain centres 
were also influenced directly from Lombardy. 

Since the above was written, Mr. A. 6. Hill has described 
four remarkable early chiurches in North Spain ; three near 
Oviedo all built, it is said, by one Tioda, in the middle of 
the ninth century in a " Latino-Byzantine "^ style, and the 


other, Saatiago de Fmahm, a Mooruh baildiiig of the 
tenth centmy which has apses at eadi end. Two of the 
former are very small crut^ann stroctures with round 
barrelrvaiuUing and western galleries. *^The sculptored 
dentals have strong Byzantine feeling.^ We may rq;azd 
it as certain that on both sides of the Pyrenees there was 
an early school of Byzantesque church building, and that 
the Romanesque school of the South of France derived 
much of its inspiration from this source. 

In the South-east there was another school, the most 
characteristic mark of which was its surface decoration by 
bands and patterns of cutnstone of divers colours. Issoire 
is a fine example of this kind. The well-known church of 
Le Puy follows the Perigueux form, but it is treated in the 
manner of Issoire, for which see Plate 27. 

Towards the end of the eleventh century many magni- 
ficent Romanesque churches were built in fVance. One of 
these is S. Semin, Toulouse, begun c. 1075, and of which 
the eastern limb was consecrated in 1096. A companion 
church over the Spanish frontier is S. James of Com- 
postella, begun c. 1080.* The fine churches of Conques, 
Brioude, and Mauriac also belong to this school, as does, in 
many respects, Cluny, the great central monastic establish- 
ment of France. In 1089 St. Hugh commenced its recon- 
struction on a vast plan ; in 1095 the choir was termi- 
nated; and the church was dedicated in 1131. The 
architects were two of the brethren, H^lon of liege 

* Thsre is the closest resemblance between St. Sernin and St. 
James. A recent Spanish author claims that the Compostella church 
Is the earlier and shows more of Byzantine influence : he dates it 1074 
or 1075, and St. Semin, zo8o. 



Face p, 130 


and Gauzon. About 1220 was added the vast naithex. 
It was a five-aisled church, with a secondary transept east- 
ward of the main crossing, an apse, and radiating chapels. 
Double chapels opened from the great transepts. A 
lantern-tower rose over the crossing, surrounded by three 
others, one on each arm of the main transept, and one 
over the east, or minor, crossing. The interior was of 
great height and entirely covered by vaults, that of the 
nave resting on transverse arches. The narthex was like 
another three-aisled nave, and was terminated at the west 
by two big towers. The line of style development and 
persistence passed through Toulouse and Cluny. 

In Normandy large works, well built and proportioned, 
were being produced about the middle of the eleventh 
century. Jumi^es was begun about 1040. Bernay, 
which dates from 10 15 to 1050, belongs rather to the 
anterior school. Domfront (c. 1050), St. Nicholas 
(c. 1 062-1083), and also Holy IVmity (1062-1072), both 
in Caen, have simple groined vaults over the choirs^ a 
most important development in the course of Northern 
architecture. Here the vaults do not follow the barrej. 
vault type found in the early churches of the South- 
eastern part of France, but they are cross-vaults allowiij« 
of the penetration of clerestory windows in each bav 
It is this relation of vault and window which was one f 
the early steps leading up to Gothic. The abbey churdi 
of St. Stephen, Caen (1064), is so planned as to show th f 
high vaults over the nave were contemplated at the fi T^ 
although the scheme was afterwards abandoned. R^j ^*' 
Robert, the historian of Norman architecture, has no d^^ 


that the main principles of early Norman construction 
were brought from Lombardy, especially by the influence 
of Lanfranc, the Prior of Bee, from 1045, but although a 
Lombard influence might account for much it will not 
account for the vaults. The application of vaults to central 
spans was first made in the schools influenced from the East 
over the Mediterranean ; the cross high- vault was a Northern 
adaptation which was found to be convenient for giving 
window space. (The high vault of Toumus, once said to 
have been erected as early as 1019, is now dated 1066-1 107). 
The next great step, in which we find the completion of 
the Romanesque style, and the opening of the immediate 
transition to Grothic, was made by reinforcing these simple 
cross-vaults with ribs under the intei*sections, forming thus 
the ogival vault. There are no vaults of this description 
now existing in Normandy itself which can be dated earlier 
than the middle of the twelfth century, but there is no 
doubt that, in the English branch of the school, they had 
by this time long been in use. Mr. Bilson has recently 
shown that, at Durham, ribbed vaults were used from the 
first building of the church, commenced at the end of the 
eleventh century. The vaults of the aisles of the choir, 
which still exist, were completed by 1096, and the high 
vault of the choir was built by 1104. It was removed; 
but the vaults of the transept (c. iioo~ii2o) and nave 
(c. 1 1 30), the construction of which followed those of the 
east end, still remain. ^ Every part of the church was 
covered with ribbed vaulting between 1093 and 1133.'^ 
There are also early twelfth-century ribbed-vaults at 
Gloucester, and the whole choir, built from 1089 to 
1 100, must have been designed for vaulting, as counter- 


butting arches, to resist its thrust, cover the triforium 
of the choir. The same arrangeinent is found at Norwich 
(begun 1096). In the drawings which Carter made of the 
Priory of Holy Trinity, Aldgate, he gives details of a bay 
of early Norman cross-ribbed vaulting which can hardly 
be later than the rebuilding immediately following the 
fire of 1132. Mr. Bilson^s study of the subject has 
created so much interest in France that Count Lasteyrie 
has brought such rebutting reasons as are possible against 
the claim ; but the historical evidence for the building of 
Durham is so complete, and the sequence of vaults has 
been so clearly worked out, that there is no doubt that the 
claimfor early ribbed vaults in England has beenfullyproved. 
Although it seems impossible to resist Mr. Bilson'^s con- 
clusion generally, yet in the case of the highly developed 
vaults of Malmesbury, I cannot think that the proof for 
a date so early as ^* not later than the middle of the twelfth 
century ^ is made out. The vaults here are quite systematic 
with pointed transverse arches, and the nave arcade is also 
pointed. Work at the Abbey does not seem to have 
begun till some time later than 1 142, and there is no reason 
to think that, even if the choir was begun directly after 
this date, the nave would be reached in six or eight 
years. Again, the elaborate sculptured south door and 
porch and the west door, can hardly be dated earlier than 
1170-80, and although their masonry does not range with 
the main work, there are no indications, and I cannot 
think it likely, that there were ever earlier doors. I 
should say that openings were left out for those highly 
sculptured features which wei'e built in at the end of the 
work. Notice that the elaborately carved porch-arch 


with its Bible stories, and eight Virtues trampling on Vices, 
had dragon-headed terminations to the drip-mould similar 
to those of the nave arcade ; they were reset in the four- 
teenth-century outer arch. We are not, I think, justified 
in supposing that the pointed arcade of the interior and 
the aisle vaults are earlier than c. 1160. They show, I 
consider, a knowledge of the solution arrived at in the 
He de France. The evidence for the use of the ogival 
vault in Norman England is clear, and without claiming 
that they were originated here, it is necessary to traverse 
Lasteyrie^s statement that, if Norman, they muH have been 
first used in the mother-land of the style. It is just 
possible that this method of construction may have been 
invented in England during the progress of the enormous 
volume of building which followed on the Norman 
Conquest. But, as said earlier, it is probable that at least 
the first principles of the system were obtained from the 

It is but a single step over an invisible line from 
Romanesque art to ^'Grothic^ art; it would help us to 
realise this if the names we give these styles answered to 
the relationship of the arts, and it might be convenient 
to interchange the word ^' Romance ^ with Gx)thic 

* On Durham and early Ogival vaults, see Appendix. 






By Romance art I mean that art which is usually called 
Gothic ; the art, especially of the North of France, which 
was developed from the Romanesque. The name of Gothic 
came into use in Italy at the Renaissance. Its origin may 
be traced to the fact that students at that time supposed 
that buildings of the earlier Middle Ages which differed 
from ^the true Roman manner^ were the work of the 
Goths who overthrew the empire. " ITien,'' says Vasari, 
^^ arose new architects who, after the manner of their bar- 
barous nations, erected the buildings in that style which we 
call Gothic.*^ Under this name he groups buildings erected 
from the early Christian to the Romanesque periods. And 
the confusion became still greater when this woid Gothic 
was extended to include the perfected mediaeval buildings 
of France and England, and was withdrawn from the 
earlier styles. It is, however, in some respects a convenient 
name, and it agrees so far with the facts that what we 
now call Grothic is an art developed where a Teutonic people 
had built its civilisation upon the ruins of a Roman 
province. In the countries comparatively untouched by 
the Germanic invasions this aii; never found a home. 


Romance art is but one of many expressions of the life 
of the Middle Ages, which may be imagined as a crystalli- 
sation of society, the several facets of which manifested, 
on the side of action, chivalry; in litemture, the romances ; 
a great enthusiasm and development in the Church ; 
in learning, the establishment of the imiversities ; and in 
civic life, the organisation of town communities and 
guilds. This same spirit, expressing itself through the 
crafts, is Romance art. It was bom in the age of the 
Crusades, the time of ^^ a culture not founded on knowing 
things, but on the art of doing things.^ It is not to 
be doubted that in all this France not only ledy but 
invented, where others followed. In a very true sense 
what we call Gothic is Frenchness of the France which 
had its centre in Paris. If, among the neighbouring 
countries, the Grothic of England comes next, as indeed it 
does, it is because England was so £bu* French. In the eyes 
of the Norman kings it must have seemed that their true 
capital was Rouen, and that England was but a conquered 
province. William the Conqueror, addressing the citizens 
of London, called them French and English. And the 
chronicler, speaking of the accession of Henry I., says that 
both French and English approved. Not only French art, 
but French thought and language in the thirteenth 
century held the predominating place in Europe. French 
tales of chivalry were everywhere read and imitated, and 
Brunetto Latini wrote his "IWsor" in French, "parce 
que la parleure est plus delitable et plus commune a toutes 

In Italy itself the influence that was to transmute 
Lombardic art into the art of Assisi, Verona, and the 


Florence of Amolfo, came from France; some of the 
Cistercian monasteries are examples of almost pure Fi'ench 
Gothic. In an interesting study of the development and 
character of Gothic architecture, Professor Moore has 
applied Viollet le Duc^s canons to a comparison between 
French and English mediaeval art ; but in his search for a 
strict definition of Gothic he is carried to a conclusion 
which excludes most of the examples usually understood to 
be representative, and which, in its rigidity, is even, I 
venture to think, opposed to the true Gothic spirit. For 
instance, he Asserts that it is *' an architecture of churches 
only,^ when the traditional claim has been Jbr the 
adaptability and inclusiveness of Grothic. It all follows, 
however, from the logical method employed, which may 
be paraphrased thus : — We shall best find the character- 
istics of Gk)thic architecture in the most perfect ex- 
amples of thirteenth-century cathedral-building; and 
then, conversely, only buildings which show these highest 
characteristics are Gothic. It follows, naturaUy enough 
that — "Gothic architecture, as I define it, was never 
practised elsewhere than in France,^ and that even the 
Sainte Chapelle in Paris is only " strictly Gothic as far as 
it goes.*" On the other hand, a brilliant French writer in 
a recent study of Gothic says that the progress of archi- 
tecture was a long battle between darkness and light, till 
at last the architect of the Sainte Chapelle in the pride of 
conquest built with light itself. So we choose our in- 
stances ! Even in his special use of the word it does not 
seem benevolent — at least it is unscientific — of Mr. Moore to 
refuse to us any Gothic in England. He should surely 
allow us a half or quarter Gothic. 


It may be granted that it would be convenient if we had 
a word which expressed ** that system of balanced thrusts " 
which is best exemplified in cathedrals like Amiens ; yet it 
is impossible at this time to divert the word ^^ Gothic^ 
to this limited use. ^ Ogival ^ might perhaps be made 
by agreement to serve the piu*pose. 

Grothic architecture is but a subsection of Grothic art, 
and ogival cathedral-building is only a subsection of Grothic 
architecture. Indeed, it may be doubted whether Castle- 
Gothic has not been neglected in the study of the evolution 
of the style. Gisors, Chateau Gedllard, and Coucy are in no 
wise be]}ind the cathedrals; and whereas church-builders 
might be conservative and sentimental, castle-builders 
perforce aimed at pure construction. 

The course of the development of castle-building is 
contemporary, and affords an interesting parallel to chmx^- 
building. The most advanced school was seated in 
Normandy. Choisy says that the most ancient western 
fortresses, which show Byzcmtine influence, are found in 
Normandy and England — Falaise, Loches, Rochester. At 
the end of the twelfth century the castles of Richard 
Cceur-de-Lion are contrived on the most learned com- 
binations, and Chfiteau Gaillard marks an epoch in mili- 
tary architecture. It belongs to the system of defence 
elaborated in Syrian castles during the twelfth century, 
when Syria, from whence Richard brought the principles, 
became the classic land of fortification. In the course of 
the thirteenth century the He de France became the /bjfer 
of castle-building, as Coucy evidences. 

In Palestine the castles of Toron and Scandalion were 
built as early as 1107 and 11 16. The great invincible 


stronghold of Eerak, fifty miles east of Jerusalem, was 
founded as early as 1121, and Iblin in 1142. The names 
of some of these strongholds give proof of the consciously 
romantic spirit of the twelfkh-century castle-builders. We 
find Blandigarde, Nigraguarda, Beauvoir, Belfort, and 
Mirabel. Henry II.'^s castle near Tours also bore this last 
name, and in the same spirit of the Arthurian romances 
Richard Coeur-de-Lion called his stronghold at Les 
AndelejTs Chateau Gaillard. 

The most recent and careful French writers, now that 
they find that cross-ribbed vaults were so early in use in 
England, are no longer as ready to be bound to the 
ogival vault as the only origin of Gothic. Enlart writes : 
^^ llie ogive is so little the only characteristic that there 
exist ogival buildings without ogives.'*'' But the superiority 
of French buildings has always been admitted by a section 
of English writers ever since G. D. Whittingham wrote a 
truly remarkable account of French architecture exactly a 
hundred years ago, undertaken to prove "the superior 
advances of the French in Gothic architecture.^ It is 
true, however, that his remark that the exterior of Notre 
Dame, Reims, is the most beautiful piece of architecture 
in the world, was objected to by John Carter in the 
Gentlemaii^s Magtmne^m^ih a burst of patriotic archaeology, 
as a " ridiculous, malignant, and unwarrantable Bedlamite 

It is the flying buttress which is the most characteristic 
member of perfected Gothic architecture, and this feature 
does seem to have been developed by the school of North 
France and Paris. In this region the transitional style 
was carried forward in so rapid a movement, and with 


such a fire of enthusiasm, that it reached a greater height 
than anywhere else. So great, indeed, is the variation, 
that the High Gothic of this region forms a species apart. 
This school borrowed the rib-vault, but the flying but- 
tress it gave. The early phase of the full Gothic may be 
described as counter-arched ogival. When, by means of 
flying buttresses, the abutments were fixed, the wall-field was 
left for the window to spread over. When the bays were 
entirely opened out by windows, cotnplete ogivcd was reached. 
Probably the lead of the North French school may be 
carried back a step farther, and it may have resulted from 
accepting and systematically applying the pointed arch in 
association with ribbed vaults. The origin of Gothic 
architecture may be fairly held to date from this conjunc- 
tion, and this first form might be called pointed ogival. 
The ribbed vault itself is found so early, in work so typic- 
ally Romanesque, that it must be held to be the completion 
of that style rather than the origin of the Gothic. But 
iranMional ogival might date from its* introduction. The 
churches of Morienval and Tracy-le-Val are good examples 
of the Northern French transitional style. (Plates 28-29.) 
Into Germany and Spain the thirteenth-century art of 
France seems to have been definitely imported, and as far 
afield as Sweden and Hungary we hear of French masters 
being called to execute works. Renan has put in evidence 
how a master of Paris was in the thirteenth century 
(i 263-1 278) commissioned to build the church at Wimp- 
fen, near Heidelberg, " in opere Francigeno."*' The style, he 
says, was then called Opus Framdgenunij and that is the 
name it ought to keep.* 

* '« lit. Hist France,'' iL pp. azo, 255. 



Face p. 140 


Gothic art is that art which, following step by step the 
development of the Middle Ages, blossomed in the 
thirteenth century and closed its first period with the 
Black Death. We may most simply set for it an arbi- 
trary period which will be fairly correct by taking the 
Great Plague (1348-1350) as its centre; and by setting 
two hundred years on either side of this we get 1150 
as the beginning and 1550 sis the end of Grothic art. 

Gothic architecture, to which I must particularly refer 
in these pages, is a sort of fairy story in stone ; the folk 
had fallen in love with building, and loved that their 
goldsmiths'* work, and ivories, their seals, and even the 
pierced patterns of their shoes should be like little build- 
ings, little tebemacles, little ^' Paulas windows."^ Some of 
their tombs and shrines must have been conceived as little 
fairy buildings ; they would have liked little angels to hop 
about them all alive and blow fairy trumpets. In the 
building of the great cathedrals it must be allowed that 
there is an element that we do not understand. The old 
builders worked wonder into them ; they had the ability 
which children have to call up enchantment In these 
high vaults, and glistening windows, and peering figures, 
there was magic even to their makers. 

I would, if I could, say something to increase our 
reverence for this architecture as something not to be 
entirely understood. We cannot by taking thought be 
Egyptian or Japanese, nor can we again be Romanesque 
or Gothic, and when we consider the century of critical 
inquiry which has been devoted to this art, and the artists 
of the same century enthusiastic in subjecting the monu- 
ments to the process called ** restoration,^ it might be 


well to inquire if any of us have ever yet seen a Gothic 
building ? As a spectacle, yes ; but, as the builders under- 
stood it, no. As I have already said, attempts are con- 
tinually being made to sum up Gothic architecture in a 
formula, as the architecture of pointed arches, of ogival 
vaulting, of subdivision and subordination, and so on; 
but, as we find it in fact, it was the product of given 
historical circumstances, as well as of the special principle 
of Gothicness, whatever that may have been. 

As general characteristics, we may say that Gothic 
architecture was developed by free and energetic experi- 
ment ; it was organic, daring, reasonable, and gay. The 
measure of life is the measure of Gothic. 

The most penetrating criticism of Gothic architecture 
that has been made is that of Prosper M^rim^ who 
pointed out that a great cathedral like Amiens is a highly 
strung organism with its most vital parts, the flying 
buttresses and window muUions, exposed to the weather. 
Such a cathedral is more like an engine than a monument, 
in that it is only kept in order by unceasing attention. 

The great cathedrals seem to have been built on such a 
scale that they might almost gather the entire adult 
population of the city within their walls. As to these 
marvellous buildings, the half of their glories and wonder 
cannot be told. They are more than buildings, more 
than art, something intangible was built into them with 
their stones and burnt into their glass. The work of a 
man, a man may understand ; but these are the work of 
ages, of nations. All is a consistent development, stone 
is balanced on stone, vault springs from vault, interlacing 


tracery sustains brilliantly dyed glass as branches hold 
sun-saturated foliage, towers stand firm as cliffs, spires are 
flung into the air like fountains. In these buildings all 
may be explained as devised for ritual use and for the 
instruction of the people ; all as material and structural 
necessity ; all as traditional development ; all as free 
beauty and romance in stone. From whichever point of 
view we may approach them, the great cathedrals satisfy 
us, and their seeming perfections are but parts of a larger 
perfection. Nothing is marked, nothing is clever, nothing 
is individual nor thrust forward as artistic ; they are serene, 
masterly, non-personal, like works of nature — indeed they 
are such, natural manifestations of the minds of men work- 
ing under the impulse of a noble idea. 

In such a church the arcades of the interior, which 
sustain the vaults, circle around the altar and abut against 
the western towers. By means of vigorous ribs of stone 
which spring from the pillars and spread over the internal 
area, a light web is suspended, so that the great space is 
covered by a tent of stone, one of the most wonderful of 
man^s inventions. The push of these ribs, collected at 
certain points, is met by the exterior abutting arches 
called ** flying buttresses,^ which, acting as props, carry the 
weight to the ground, and thus counterpoise the thrusts of 
the interior. The interspaces between the several points 
from which the vaults spring are practically relieved from 
work, and here the windows were put. As, generation 
after generation, the masons worked away in perfecting 
their scheme of construction, every part of the fabric was 
gathered up into a tense stone skeleton. This resulted in, 
or was itself occasioned by, another ideal which aimed at 


turning the whole inactive wall-space into windows, so that 
the cathedral became a vast lantern of tracery ; then, by 
picturing the spaces by means of transparent jewels of 
glass, the interior was lighted by angels and saints in- 
numerable. In the porches and screens were placed 
hundreds of statues, all parts of a connected scheme, an 
/ encyclopaedia of Nature, History, and Theology. 

We must remember, too, that these Gothic buildings were 
not few and unrelated ; cathedral towers rose over strong 
town walls, and crowded, many-gabled houses, while out- 
wards the country was so closely set over with fair abbeys 
and villages that the voice of the bells was heard from 
church to church as they called to one another throughout 
the whole of Christendom. Moreover, the ritual had been 
perfected by the daily practice of a thousand years, and 
was linked to a music that belonged to it as the blast of 
trumpets belongs to war. All were parts of a marvellous 
drama, the ceremonial life of a people. 

If we seek for causes for the formation of Grothic art 
out of its immediate antecedent, we shall find the first and 
chief in the general historical facts of the period. In such 
a time of growth and consolidation a corresponding change 
in the arts must follow. The transition in architecture 
coincides with great changes in the constitution of town 
communities and the status of the workman. Romanesque 
architecture, outside Italy at least, was monastic and 
feudal, and the builders were attadied to the soil. Gothic 
I on the other hand, is the architecture of towns, guilds, and 
masters who were free to pass from place to place. 
The mutual binding together of groups for a common 


purpose belongs in some degree to all societies, and guilds 
of craftsmen probably continued in existence in Italy, at 
least, from Roman days. In Constantinople, as we have 
seen, the guilds were highly organised, and there is some 
evidence to suggest that the mediaeval guild system, which 
ultimately spread from Italy over France, England, and 
Germany, derived much from the East. For instance, the 
order of the Arti in Florence, in the thirteenth century, 
follows very much the model of the corporations of Con- 
stantinople in the ninth ; and at the same time the guild 
regulations of Paris were very similar to both. It is a 
curious fact, moreover, that in the thirteenth century 
kUomos, the Byzantine word for mason, was used in France 
and England. I suppose that workers in the West derived 
their customs and organisation from groups of Byzantine 
artists working in Italy ; and that it is to the existence of 
such groups in North Italy that we owe the easy trans- 
mission of Lombard architecture over Western Europe, 
which ultimately led to the establishment of similar guilds 
and the development of Gothic. When the towns of 
Northern France became communes, the guilds became 
regular schools of craftsmanship. A mediaeval town was 
a sort of craft university, and Gothic curt is the art of the 
Masons^ guild. 

The more direct action of the East upon the West in 
the age of the Crusaders, which undoubtedly was one of 
the causes of the upheaval of the soil which made new 
growth possible, was brought about in many ways — by 
pilgrimage, by commercial enterprise, and, above all, by 
the unconscious absorption of new ideas by Western 
knights who were long in power in the East. 



Another leading cause of the change to Gothic must 
have been the great monastic expansion, associated as that 
was with St. Bemard^s criticism of the older barbaric 
ornamentation, and the falling back upon the first 
principles of structure which resulted from it The 
monastic reforms, passing in waves over Europe during the 
twelfth century, led to an enormous volume of building 
being undertaken in the erection of great establishments 
for the reformed orders. 

The reformed Cluniac Order was established by Odo of 
Cluny, c. 920. In 1076 the Order of Grandmont was 
instituted. The Augustinian, or regular, canons were 
greatly spread abroad in the first years of the twelfth 
century. The Cistercian Order, an ofishoot of the Cluniac, 
was founded in 1092 at Citeaux. Orderic, writing twenty- 
seven years afterwards, says that in this time the mother- 
house had given birth to sixty-five abbeys. They were 
given ^^such names as GodVhouse, Clairvaulx, Charity, 
and others like, so as to attract those who heard the names 
pronounced.'*' * The Carthusian Order was instituted by 
St. firuno, bom 1040, who, with a few followers, retired 
(c. 1080) to an Alpine pass, and there built their first 
house, called the Chartreuse, the prototjrpe of all other 
Charterhouses and Certosas. Savigny, the mother-house 
of the order of Tiron, was built about 1112. This order 
was absorbed by the Cistercians in 1148. 

Another order was that of the Premonstratentians, 
founded by Norbert, diaplain to the Emperor, who 
withdrew to a solitary place near Laon called Pr^montr^, 

* These and other French names, as Cherlieu, Bonport, Valbenott, 
ftc, may be compared with our own Beaulien, Vallecmcis, ftc. 


and founded (in 11 20) a community under a strict form of 
the rule of St. Augustine. ^ So that from the time of the 
Apostles scarce any one,^ says Herimann of Toumay, 
^* has done more service to the Church, for although it is 
not full thirty years since his conversion, we have already 
heard of about one hundred monasteries built by his 
followers. Norbert placed a few of his monks to serve 
the poor little church of St. Martin at Laon,and there are 
now about five hundred monks in that monastery, and ten 
other houses have sprung from it.*" 

It is said that the Bishop of Laon, from 1 113 to 1 150, 
built ten abbey churches, ^^one for Benedict, four for 
Bernard, five for Norbert ** 

At the same time that there was this great activity in 
founding abbeys, there was a like energy expended in 
castle-building, bridge-building, and the buildings necessary 
to town life. There can be no doubt that the development 
of castle-building was made by the great war-dukes 
themselves. The Tower of London had its prototype in 
the Tower of Rouen, and it is probable that the Conqueror 
schemed its defences in detail. It is not to be doubted 
that Ch&teau Gaillard was planned by Richard I. Our 
Henry III., it appears from the Rolls accounts, was a 
veritable sestheto-maniac, only happy when he was engaged 
in building operations. Sufficient evidence makes it 
dear that interest in building and other forms of art was 
universal in the Middle Ages. In many places we find 
amateur carvings done by prisoners of rank, as at the 
Tower and Guildford Castle, and these show the same 
characteristics as other examples of contemporary art. 
Indeed, it seems impossible to find a scratching on a wall 


older than the eighteenth century that does not show 
feeling for arrangement and beauty. 

Such facts as these may partly explain the great outburst 
of the building art, which we call Gothic 

When, in the first half of the twelfth century, the 
building art of the He de France began its triumphant 
development, it gathered up the traditions of many 
schools* The chief influences at that time acting on the 
native Romanesque were — Byzantine, acting through the 
South of France; Lombardic and Rhenish Romanesque, 
acting from the East and North ; and Norman from the 
West. To the Byzantine influence is probably due the 
introduction of the pointed arch* A distinct Grerman 
influence is to be traced in Toumay, Noyon, Cambrai, 
Laon and Soissons. Noyon Cathedral, begun soon after 
1 131, is one of the first churches which may properly be 
called Gothic From the time of St. Medard, Noyon and 
Toumay had been held conjointly by the same bishops, 
but in 1 145 Toumay had its individual See restored. 
Toiunay Cathedral is a magnificent Romanesque church 
having apse-ended transepts and a group of four towers 
surrounding the crossing. Now the Toumay type of 
transepts was followed in the building of Noyon, but here 
they are without ambulatories. Cambrai Cathedral (i 148- 
90), however, had circular-ended transepts with arcades 
exactly like an eastem apse, and at Soissons there remains 
a beautiful arcaded apse-ended transept (c, 11 80). The 
early forms of Cambrai and Soissons were soon altered 
by partial re-building. The Cathedral of Valenciennes, how- 
ever, preserved its original design until the whole church 



was destroyed a century ago : " The transept of Valen- 
ciennes ** was one of the most famous architectural monu- 
ments of the North-west of France ; it was built c. 1 160- 
80 (Fig. 62). As at Toumay and Cambrai there was a 

Fig. 63. Plan of destroyed church of Valenciennes with apsed transepts. 

lantern tower over the crossing. There cannot be a doubt 
of the ultimate Byzantine origin of the whole group 
through Cologne and Toumay. The use of circular- 
ended transepts continued in the North of France until the 
beginning of the thirteenth century, when was built the 
remarkable Cistercian abbey of Chaalis, with radiating 
chapels opening from the apsidal transepts. {See Fig. 63.) 


At Laon, although the transepts themselves are square- 
ended, they are flanked by four high transeptal towers 
recalling the Toumay arrangement, and from the eastern 
pair of towers open two circular-ended chapels of exoep- 


♦ ♦ 

Fig. 63. Plan of chxtreh of Cisterdan abbey of Chaalis, near Senlii. 

tional height and importance, which almost seem like a 
modification of the apsidal transepts of Toumay.* 

Another sign of German influence appears in the four- 
gabled towers in the neighbourhood of Soissons. The 

* The little early church of St. Wandrille near Caudebec has 
rounded transepts, and the transitional church at Meung is a simpler 
version of CambraL Altogether this is a very important class. 


central tower of Braisne follows this type, as also did that 
of the abbey church of Notre Dame, Soissons (Fig. 64). 

The alternation of the piers of the nave arcade, whereby 
coupled bays were formed, may also be traced to Lombardic 
and Grerman sources, whether derived directly or through 
Normandy. Themostrecent inquirers,like AnthymeSt.Paul, 
Dehio and Von Bezold, and Enlart, are disposed to assign 
a large share in the transitional movement to Normandy, 
and Mr. Bilson has shown how Norman work in England 
provides most important links in the chain of development. 
To Norman builders we owe the adoption or invention of 
the ogival or cross-ribbed vault. Dehio says that on the 
threshold of the twelfth century the Norman school was 
the first to attain the goal which had been the aim of all 
the schools of North France. And EnUrt rather grudg- 
ingly writes : ^ The ogival vault was in use in the He de 
France and Ficardy about 11 20. If the most ancient 
examples are not found here, it is probably in the Norman 
schools that we should search for them. It seems that in 
England such vaults were constructed from 11 20, and 
perhaps earlier.*" In a foot-note the evidence as to the 
Durham vaults is admitted but without bringing out its 
full weight, which shows that ogival vaults were built here 
from 1093 to 1096. (Enlart^s Manual, p. 440, and see 
above, p. 132.) At Laon, Norman influence is to be seen 
in the arcades across the ends of the transepts, a treatment 
found at St. Stephen^ Caen, and at Winchester. At 
St. Gkrmer (c. 1 140) and Poissy (c. 1 140) Norman influence 
may also be traced. The vaulted triforium gallery which 
we find at Noyon, Laon, Paris, and elsewhere was also a 
Norman feature, but not exclusively so. 


The development of Gothic in the North of France 

FlO. 64. Destroyed abbey church of St Mary, Soissons. 

probably followed trade-routes along the river valleys of 
the Seine, Oise, Marne and Aisne. The country churches 


of this district even more than the cathedrals show the 
intense building energy that was put forth during the 
twelfth century. About Soissons, Laon, Senlis and 
Beauvais beautiful churches are to be found at every mile 
or two. There must have been great prosperity in all this 
region when such works were produced. 

One of the noteworthy facts of the growth of Grothic 
was the rapidity of its advance. Fast as rumour the seed 
ideas flew, and a harvest of churches, great and small, 
sprang up over a vast field. 



Ws must now pass to a more technical examination of 
some of the chief characteristics of Gothic architecture. 

One of the most typical principles of construction is 
that of supporting the vaults by diagonal ribs, the con- 
struction in France called ^^voAte &ur oroides iTogives'"; 
this principle, as we have just seen, Romcmesque builders 
had already largely used. The word "ogive'' is used by 
Villars de Honnecourt, in the thirteenth century, as a name 
for diagonal vaulting ribs.* The ogival vault is made up 
of ribs crossing diagonally over every compartment, and 
of shells of stone covering in the triangular spaces left 
between them, something like stone umbrellas. A few 
years ago it was thought that these vaults were the 
special mark of the Gothic style, that they were invented 
in North France, and that Morienval is the earliest churdi 
where the system was applied, but it is not now considered 
that this church dates from before 1 120-5. 

The simplest form of an ogival vault is that in which a 

• Ogivi comes from the same root as augmmt. Godefroi's Dic- 
tionary cites " Les voussures de boin azur et tontes les augives dord." 
Our English *' ogee *' seems to be the same word. 



Facep, 154 



compartment is crossed by two diagonal ribs, and this is 
called ** quadripartite vaulting."*' 

The high vaults of the French churches, built in the 
last half of the twelfth century, usually had six cells to a 
compartment ; that is, an additional transverse rib was put 
at the intersection of the diagonal ribs, and the cells of 
the vault were modified accordingly. This form probably 
















Fio. 65. Diagrams of vatilts. 

originated in the adding of a strengthening arch to a 
quadripartite vault. When, in the latter half of the 
thirteenth centiuy, the aisle vaults of Beauvais were 
strengthened, they were changed into quasi six-celled 
vaults. In some early vaults there are arches of a similar 
kind, and although existing examples do not seem to be 
earlier, or so early, as some true six-celled vaults, it is 
likely that such approximation to them did once exist. 
Th«:e were several reasons which led the builders to accept 


this form, but it was probably retained chiefly for the 
following one : in Fig. 65, a, A is an apse with its vaulting 
ribs ; in the next bay, B, the diagonal ribs were not thrown 
right across, but butted against the point where the apse 
ribs converged, so as to form a resistance to their thrust. 
Bay B is thus vaulted in three cells, and if we now treat 
bays C and D in exactly the same way (alternating the 
direction of the diagonals), we get the arrrangement in 
the figure, where C and D together make up a six-celled 
vault. W W are the windows. It will be seen that this 
system makes coupled bays which are approximately square. 
Moreover with such vaults every coupled bay nearly 
repeats the width of the great bays opening to the tran- 
septs. By means of making the great transverse ribs into 
arches more substantial than the rest of the ribs and 
accentuating the vaulting shafts below them into an echo 
of the main piers of the crossing, it was possible to inter- 
weave an arched order rising the whole height of the walls 
with the lesser order of the nave arcade. Several examples 
show that this was aimed at. In Lyons Cathedral the 
larger alternate piers of the arcade are all like the four 
piers of the crossing. 

The bays around the apse are always comparatively 
narrow, and this opened up the way to another method of 
spacing, which later became the normal one, and is shown 
on the right, Fig. 66, b. Bay B has now become one of the 
apsidal bays, and about half the width of the ordinary 
bays C and D, which are each vaulted in four cells. 

In English vaults, from about 1260, intermediate ribs 
are often found to the four-celled vault, thus subdividing 
each triangular web of the filling, as shown in D, Fig. 66. 



This naturally resulted in the systematic use of ridge ribs, 
as shown in the figure. Some writers have said that this 
addition of ribs is a fault of prin- 
ciple ; but that cannot be admitted, 
although thei*e may have been 
lack of boldness.* 

The essential principle of the 
Gothic vault is the placing of 
ribs where the svirfaces change 
their directions, that is, at the 
diagonal intersections. Thus the 
transverse rib found in all Gothic 
vaults is itself but an irdermedioite^ 
and in narrow spaces a surplusage. 
It helps, however, to support the 
vault web, and in wider spaces 
justifies itself. English builders 
preferred still further support, 
and it cannot be thought that 
French masters of the best period 
would have hesitated to use the 
expedient on principle. Indeed, 
the great vault over the crossing 
of Amiens, which belongs to the 
first building of this part, allows 
us to say that the master, in this case, did feel the need 01 
additional support, enA obtained it exactly as it is done in 
an English vault of the same time. Will the critics adverse 

* Professor Moore says, " The three ribs, transverse, diagonal, and 
longitudinal, are the only constructive ribs of any vault " ; others he 
calls superfluous, " ribs which have no necessary function " 

Fig. 66. Diagrams of vaults. 


to English Gothic say that the Amiens master adopted an 
English invention ? In Fig. 66, A shows a bay of a quadri- 
partite vault. B shows the same with an additional trans- 
verse arch, which turns it into a pseudo-six-oeUed vault. 
C is a true sexipartite vault as explained above. 

The pointed arch was used by Byzantine builders, and 
its use spread over the East. In the West it is found in 
the eleventh century. One of several reasons for its adoption 
must have been that such arches could be constructed with 
less elaborate centring than circular arches. Doubtless 
many were built on little more than two timbers inclined 
at an A angle. Compare what has been said above on 
page 36 as to the elliptical brick arches of Egypt 

Early French masters in their use of the pointed arch 
generally confined themselves to those whose curvature 
varied within a narrow range, and they appear to have 
standardised thi-ee or four varieties, between the semi- 
circular and equilateral arches. When a relatively high 
space had to be occupied by an arch they usually stilted 
it, that is, raised the actual springing level above the 
capitals down to which the arch mouldings were continued 
vertically. Standard arches were called three-point, four- 
point, five-point, and so on ; terms which were already in 
use at the time of Villars de Honnecourt. If the span of 
an arch is divided into three, four, five, &c., the centres of 
the curves of the seveitd arches are in each case placed on 
the two points farthest from the springings of the arch. 
The three-point arch is relatively low, the four-point arch 
is steeper, and the five- and six-point arches still more 
nearly approach the equilateral fomu 


In a square vaulted compartment, if the diagonal ribs 
are made, a» they most frequently were, semicircular, they 
would rise higher than transverse arches of the three-point 
form, and the vault would be slightly domical ; this was 
the earlier form of vault 

Four-point transverse arches rise just exactly to the 
same height as semicircular diagonals, and give level 
ridges ; this was the later form of vault 

It may be that these forms of arches were preferred for 
some such reasons ; but in any case, working with arches 
the geometrical relations of which were known, sim- 
phfied the conduct of works without elaborate drawings, 
and the sketch-book of Villars de Honnecourt shows how 
much building recipes of this sort were valued. 

More than the vaults themselves, the French way of 
staying them with flying buttresses was characteristic of 
the progress of GotUc. The first flying buttresses were 
simple quadrant arches, like those around the apse of the 
St. Grermain des Pr^ Paris, consecrated 1163. They 
reached an extraordinary development at Chartres and 
Reims, and above all at Beauvais. They seem to have 
been in general use from about 11 60, at Ourscamp, Laon, 
&c. But in England there was a long period after their 
introduction by the Sens master at Canterbury before they 
were generally adopted, and they were haltingly used until 
Westminster Abbey was built, after 1245. The buttresses 
of this church closely follow French models. 

It is possible that this hesitation may have come from a 
dislike of their essential weakness as being exposed to rapid 
decay; but, notwithstanding this weakness, great Gothic 



construction depends on the bold use of the ** butting arch.*" 
This reluctance delayed the general use of high vaults, 

so that the middle spans of noble 
churches like Byland Abbey and 
Ripon Cathedral ivere not vaulted. 
Otiiers, like Rivaulx (choir) and 
St. Hugh's choir at Lincoln, were 
vaulted, but without external 
support. In both these cases flying 
butti'esses were added later. Even 
in the middle of the thirteenth 
century, when Salisbury nave was 
built, the supports were all kept 
under the aisle roofs. 

Buttresses had begun as pilas- 
ters of slight projection, and 
became strong piers rising above 
the aisle roof from which the 
flying props were thrown to sup- 
port the clerestory, then pinnacles 
, I were added to increase their 

' weight and resistance to lateral 

II I pressure. They increased until 

fl. |i j they seemed like pierced walls 

BIL^—^ ffrffi standing at right angles to the 

^ main building. Finally, channels 

Fig. 67. Sketch section of one 1 . • .1 -i 

side of nave, Amiens Cathedral ^^re wrought m the upper Side 

of their sloping backs, down 
which ran the water from the main roof, which was 
then thrown clear of the building by fcur-projecting 
gargoyles. At the same time the original walls 


between chem disappeared in arched openings filled with 
glass. (Plate 30). 

In churches like Amiens Cathedral or St. Urbain at 
Troyes, there is hardly any wall left; and in these 
buildings a tendency is to be remarked to substitute thin 
double screens of stone for thicker work. The construction 
tended to become cellular (see the triforium and clerestory 
of Amiens, Fig. 6y). Building thus with double screens 
connected by piers is, for rigidity and lightness, the last 
word in construction of masonry. Brunelleschi made use 
of a similar principle in the double shell of his dome at 

It should be pointed out that French building admitted 
of the extensive use of ironwork ties and chainage. The 
windows were subdivided by strong grates of wrought-iron, 
some of the horizontal bars of which ran on through the 
piers continuously. At the Sainte Chapelle a chain was 
imbedded in the walls right round the building, and the 
stone vaulting-ribs were reinforced by curved bands of iron 
placed on each side and bolted to them. 

In the plans of French churches we find a largeness and 
unity of conception to which the English churches afibrd 
little parallel, and it must be remembered that the general 
disposition of areas and masses is the first of constructive 

One of the most remarkable churches I have ever seen 
is St. Frambourg at Senlis. This is without arcades, a 
simple ^Wessel,^ with an apse rounded like a poop. 
It is 150 feet long and 32 feet wide, vaulted in four great 
sexpartite bays, and one half-bay next the apse. A single 



row of lancet windows high up in the vault, and one great 

cirde in the west 
gable, admit the light. 
Outside are sturdy 
buttresses and a plain, 
steep, tiled roof. 

Mantes Cathedral 
(c. 1200) is similarly 
expressive of one idea. 
Here there is an 
arcade which con- 
tinues from the west 
front around the apse 
and back again. The 
aisle runs around in 
the same unbroken 
way, without any pro- 
jecting chapels. At 
the west end two 
strong towers stop 
the thrusts of the 
arcade. The exterior 
has a steep tiled roof 
with red, black,green, 
and yellow tiles ar- 
ranged on it in a 
great diaper. 

At St. Leu d'Esse- 
rent, again, we find a 

similar plan; but two towers stand in the position of 

transepts over bays of the aisles. 

Fia 68. Plan of church at Chars, Oise. 



Bourges is the greatest church of this class. Here there 
are double aisles and double arcades circling around the 
altar and continued to the west end, where they are 
blocked by towers. 

Another great type of French plan is formed by the 
transeptal churches. 
In some of these, as, 
for instance, Notre 
Dame, Paris, in its 
original form, the 
transepts hardly ap- 
pear on the plan, but 
stand in a line with 
the aisle walls and 
only become marked 
above. The fine plan 
of Chars, O ise ( 1 1 60- 
80), is a good type of 
thb form, and it is 
interesting in com- 
parison with Notre 
Dame. This class is 
intermediate between the simple vessel and the cruciform 
tjrpe of diurch. The transepts, if they were arcaded like 
tiie nave, sometimes had two towers to each, one at the 
end of each aisle, as at Laon, Chartres, &c 

At Toumay, Cambrai, Soissons, and Noyon the cathe- 
drals follow another perfect constructive type. Here the 
transepts were apsidal, like the east ends. These apses 
resisted the interior pressure like horizontal arches (see 
Kg. 62). 

Fig. 69. 

Plan of east transept and chevet of 
the church of St. Quentin. 


The office of towers, in the economy of these great 
buildings, was to furnish large buttressing masses. For 
the purpose of stopping the arcades at the west end, one 
great tower sometimes took the place of two side ones, as 
at St. Quentin and St. Germain des Pr^, Paris. At 
Toumay there are four towers in the re-entering angles of 
the transepts which take the pressure at the crossing. 
And pairs of towers are often built in the re-entering 
angles east or west of the transepts, as at Notre Dame 
at Ch&lons, St. Martin at Laon, &c. 

In the rearing of apsidal chevets set around with chapels 
the French masters were occupied with a great problem 
that we in England hardly touched. Not only have we 
the results to prove this, but in the Study-book of Villars 
de Honnecourt we have positive evidence that this, to his 
mind, was the very centre of his art. 

The germ of this system may be traced back through 
the Romanesque age to Roman architecture. Buttressing 
a wall in this way by a series of convex chambers is a per- 
fect constructive expedient. When applied to the circular 
head of a church, forming so many chapels, the whole 
seems more like natural crystallisation than mere planning. 
For a full account of the development of apses it is neces- 
sary to consult the pages of Viollet le Due. One remark- 
able apsidal termination, however, which he does not 
notice, is that of St. Quentin (c. 1235). This, it seems 
probable, may be the work of Villars de Honnecourt him- 
self; it certainly is the contrivance of a man who had seen 
much and tried to combine many excellences. Not only 
the chapels, but the arcades opening into them, are in this 
case bowed. The vaulting of the ambulatory is carried 



higher than the chapels to allow room for low clerestory 
windows. The apse is thus surrounded by a double tier 
of convex chambers, as is plainly seen from the outside. 

Fig. 70, Church of St. Yved at Braisne, near Soissons. 

In this church the apse starts from a narrow secondaiy or 
eastern transept (Fig. 69). The exteriors of the huge ap- 
sidal chevets * of Beauvais, Bourges, and Le Mans are just 
as marvellous as the interiors, the great sweeping walls of 

* Chevet means head, and is applied in France equally to square 


windows being set around with a very scaffolding of pin- 
nacled buttresses and ramping arches. (Plate 30.) The 
most perfect of all the schemes of planning apsidal chapels 
is that followed at Toledo by a French master; it has 
been well described by Street. 

The conventual church of Braisne, close to Soissons, 
follows an interesting type of plan, 
which, while approximating to the 
usual arrangement of apsidal chapels, 
derives rather from the three parallel 
apses (Fig. 70). 

At Mons, near Laon, the church, a 
noble one built about 1180-1190, has 
three such apses. At ViUeneuve-le- 
Vicomte is a still simpler instance of 
the same type, there being in this case 
no transepts (Fig. ^ i ). The destroyed 
FIG. 71. Church of Viiic- ^bbey church of VauceUes, of which 

the plan was taken by V. de Honne- 
court, is an extremely beautiful solution formed, it seems, 
by combining the apsidal form and the plan of Braisne 
together (Fig. 72). Some echo of the same idea may 
be seen in the plan of St. Quentin (Fig. 69). 

In England, desiring chapels, but not the French means 
of obtaining them, we hit on a compromise, as in the nine 
altars of Fountains and Durham. The general use of the 
second transept in England came about in the same way. 
Both gave room for chapels, but did not require the great 
science necessary for the erection of apsidal chevets. 

At the end of the twelfth century the circular type of 
plan was used in the chapel of Liget near Loches, built 



by our Henry II., c. 1 176. The Temple churches belong 
to a similar class. Fig. 73 is the plan of the chapel of the 
Templars at Laon built c. 11 34. 

Gk)thic buildings, as they have come down to us, have 
been subject to many additions, changes, and chances; 

Fig. 72. Destroyed abbey church of Vaucelles, near Cambrai. 

moreover, hardly any one was built throughout in a time 
sufficiently short to give it absolute homogeneity. On 
comparing a number of examples, however, it becomes 
clear that they were schemed on large lines to satisfy given 
purposes with materials readily obtainable. The builders 
valued spaciousness and height, lastingness, and fair work- 
manship, but ideas of a picturesque conglomeration of 
parts, or of abstract proportion, probably never occurred 
to them. If we turn from the cathedrals to the little 


village churches we find that they were in the first case 
built as directly for their purpose as a cart or a boat 
would be. 

A large majority of the most famous churches have been 
^^ designed*" to make use, in a greater 
or less degree, of old foundations. 
Chartres Cathedral is founded on a 
pre-existing crypt, and is terminated 
by an old west front. . Westminster 
Abbey is largely built over old founda- 
tions, and when rebuilt by Henry III. 
in 1245, had to fit in between a 
Norman nave and a lady chapel built 
in 1220, as well as to connect properly 
fj A M with the old cloister. Angers Cathedral 

JL gjjL is famous for being vaulted in one great 

span of "fine proportions^; recent 
excavations have shown that the walls 
belong to an anterior building which 
had arcades, but these were cleared away. In Fig. 74, A A 
shows the eleventh-century church, B B the church as 
rebuilt from the middle of the twelfth century. Under 
such circumstances there is little opportunity for planning 
abstract proportions. 

The regular course of works in rebuilding a church was 
to build in sections from the east end. While the choir 
was being built, the nave remained in use ; when it was 
finished and dedicated, the nave was undertaken; that 
finished in turn, chapels were added, or the choir was 
lengthened eastward, or they began to build all over again, 
once more at the east end. One of the most interesting 

Fig. 73. The Templars' 
Chapel, Laon. 



examples of transfonnation known to me is at Wetzlar, on 
the Lahn. The choir 
having been rebuilt 
in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, while the nave re- 
mained Romanesque, a 
new west front was be- 
gun a bay in advance of 
the old one; but the 
new work was never 
finished, and the noble 
Romanesque front still 
stands behind the ela- 
borate screen of the un- 
finished new fafade. 

It is vain to look, as 
many have done, for 
any general doctrines 
of proportion in work 
so conducted. More- 
over, in the relation of 
voids to supports, and 
heights to substance, 
Gothic ** proportion " 
was governed by a law 
of its own. The prin- 
ciple was exactly that 
of natural growth. 
Structure was always tending to overpass the limits of 
stability. In the narrow field left for choice there may 
have been a preference for planning leading dimensions on 

Fig, 74. Plan of Angers Cathedra], show- 
ing how the final form B was conditioned by 
the earlier plan A. 


a series of squares or triangles, and the recurrence of similar 
relations echoing one another is likely to produce some 
harmony in all arts. 

In the studies of V. de Honnecourt attempts ai*e made to 

triangulate the proportions of 
human figures and animals, and 
Diirer was interested in similar 
problems. Howeverthismaybe, 
whether for structural reasons 
or otherwise modifications in 
'Via 75. Section of the great normal geometrical setting out 
ball of the abbey of St. Martin des were readily made. Thus, in 
Champs. Paris. ^^ magnificent double^sled 

hall of St. Martin des Champs, Paris, the curves of the 
vaulting are set out as in the figure. 

The popular view of Gothic is that it is the architecture 
of traceried windows ; and, indeed, the principle of con- 
struction involved in branching over wide spaces with 
stone bars is as important as any in the Gothic code, and 
it made possible the final conception of making the walls 
a structure of posts and bars filled by screens of stained 
glass. Single lancet windows had grown to be of great size, 
seven or eight feet wide at times, and, as in the apse of 
Chartres, forty feet high. They were very strongly barred 
with iron. Subdivision by slender bars of stone naturally 
followed, and the association of circular lights above 
coupled lancets opened the way to tracery. 

Traceried windows proper, of two lights with cusped 
circles above, seem first to have been used in the apsidal 
chapels of Reims, begun in 12 11. 



The evolution of traceried windows, as followed by 
Prof. Willis, at fii'st seems to be a perfect demonstra- 
tion. Prom an early time sub-arches are found under a 
containing arch, and piercings, growing bigger and more 
complex, were made in the 
shield of stone between the 
sub-arches and the containing 
arch. This, indeed, seems to 
be a true account for triforium 
arcades (compare Noyon and 
Amiens), but, as a matter of 
historic fact, the origin of 
traceiied windows in the great 
French school of ogival art 
depended on the association of 
a rose window with lancets 
beneath. This at first may 
seem a small distinction, but 
it will be found to explain 
several survivals in early French 
windows. The clerestory win- 
dows of Chartres will best make 
this clear, and in this case there 
can be no doubt of origin. In 
each bay two lancets and a big rose are brought together 
into one composition under a containing arch which is less 
a relieving arch over the windows than part of the general 
pier and arch construction. (See V. le D., vol. v. p. 381.) 
In the parallel design of Laon cloisters the containing 
arch is absent altogether. In the apse windows of Auxerre 
(Fig. 76), this bringing together of a rose and two lancets 


Fig. 76. Apse windows of 
Auxerre Cathedral. 



is still perfectly obvious. At Bourges we find a similar 
treatment in the narrow bays of the apse and in the wider 
bays of the choir roses are set over three lancets. At Lyons 
three little roses are piled above three lancets, but all are 
still separate* 

In Fig. 27, firom the hospital of the Abbey of Ours- 

FiG. 77. Rose and two lancets 
from Ouracamp, c» 1x90. 

Fig. 78. From V. de Honne- 
court's sketch of the construc- 
tion of early traoeried windows 
at Reims Cathedral, c. 1313. 

camp (c. 1 190), the rose and lancets have hardly yet 
become one window, but in the combined arches we find 
the certain germ of the tracery bar. 

Now let us turn to the famous windows of Reims. 
Here the containing arch is that of the bay. The rose 
combines with the two lancets as in the last instance, but 
not with the containing arch. In roses, as in Fig. yy, 
the piercings are made in a slab, or slabs, set in the 
circle. It is the same in the circles at Reims (Fig. 78). 



Very curiously, when cusps were introduced, at a little later 
time, into the heads of lancets they were inserted in 
separate thin pieces, and this treatment was a survival 
from the cusped slabs of roses. 

In this view of their origin the form of highly stilted 
French windows, as in the example 
from Reims, finds a complete ex- 
planation and justification. They 
are rose-headed couplets.* 

In the similar windows at Amiens 
the rose obtains additional support 
by means of two strong crockets 
which push against it (Fig. 79). This 
again speaks of the original idea. 
Villars de Honnecourt^s sketch of the 
Reims windows makes it clear that 
such support was necessary for the 
lower part of the rose, for he shows 
it as constructed with joggle joints 
as in A, Fig. 78. 

In the nave clerestory of Amiens, 
begun in 1220, the principle of 
subdivision is carried a step farther, and we get large four- 
light windows of bar-tracery all cusped in the circles. 
Windows such as these were used in the Chapter-house at 
Westminster, begun in 1245. At Chartres we find little 
lancets pierced in the spandrils on either side at the bottom 
of the transept roses. This is carried a step farther at 
Chalons Cathedral (Fig. 80), and at last the rose and the 

Fig. 79. Construction of 
early traoeried windows, c, 
xaaOf Amiens Cathedral. 

* See the west window of St. Nicaise, V. le D., vol. viii. p. 60, and 
the foar-Ught windows at St. Denis, vol. v. p. 394. 



lancets were merged into one glorious traceried window like 
the north window of Amiens. 

Perfected windows, with the tracery filling the arched 

Fig. 8a From the rose window in the north transept of Ch&lons CatbedraL 

head and the upright lights cusped, are perhaps first 
found at the Sainte Chapelle, Paris, 1 240-8, After the 
windows had spread over the whole bay up to the arched 
vaulting rib as seen from within, a further development 
was made in the middle of the thirteenth century by 



making them fill up the square-headed bays of the 
exterior, thus being bounded only by the buttresses and 
the main cornice. In this case the heads of the windows 
are pushed up into ^^ pockets ^ left in the thickness of the 

Fig. 8z. One quarter of rose window, Notre Dame, Paris. 

wall behind the vaulting ribs. Viollet le Due gives 
instances of this treatment, and Kg. 82 is a parallel 
treatment from the triforium windows of Amiens (c. 1250- 
1260). The open arcade crowning the west front of 
Notre Dame, Paris, is another beautiful example of similar 
method. The square spandrils of rose windows were also 


opened out and combined with the circles. Kg. 8 1 is a 
quarter of one of the transeptal Roses of Notre Dame. 

On consideration of the many surpassing excellences to 
he found in Gothic windows, both in their stone frames 
and- the glass which fills them — ^the essential and high 

Fig. 83. Triforiura windows from the transept of Amiens Cathedral 

part that they serve in the economy of the building, the 
scale, frequently upwards of a thousand square feet, 
whereby the figured glass may be seen by a concourse of 
people, and, above all, the way in which such a window 
lends itself to, and becomes a part of, the glory of light — 
I am forced to say that the window of dyed glass is the 
most perfect art-form known. So any one must feel who 


^IJ. i ^ 


Face p. 176 

1^' I i2^\.! tj/WWi . ^ I 

Fig. 83, a, b, Staioed glass fTona soath transept of Chartres Cathedral 
(after Lassus). 

Fia 84^1. Cbartres, upper part of window called Notre Dame 
de la Belle- Verri^re. 

Fig. 84^. Lower part of same window at Chartres 
(after Lassua). 


has watched the changing hues of the windows of Chartres, 
Bourges, or Reims, through a summer^s afternoon, fix>m 
the hour when the shadows of the flying buttresses fall in 
great bands across the burning glass, to the twilight 
when they fade and hardly glimmer in the gloom of the 
vaults. (Plate 31.) 

Such windows were not depicted merely in transparent 
colours, as we are apt to think ; but from the thickness, 
texture, and quality of the old glass it holds the sunlight, 
as it were, within it, so that the whole becomes a mosaic 
of coloured fire. Up to the middle of the thirteenth 
century the usual colour scheme was of crimson and 
azure, cleared by small fragments of white, yellow and 
green. The " pitch ^ of the colour is the intensest con- 
ceivable, and stimulates the sensibilities like an exultant 
anthem. One feels that this dazzling mixture of blue 
and ruby was made use of by a deeper instinct than taste. 
Such windows seem to fulfil an active part in cathedral 
ritual — an incense of colour. 

The windows of St. Louis^ chapel, of which some large 
portions are now in the South Kensington Museum, were 
celebrated in the saying : ** Wine the colour of the windows 
in the Sainte Chapelle.^ 

figures 83 a, 6, and 84 a, ft, are outlines of windows at 
Chartres. In the former, itrith daring symbolism, are the 
Evangelists mounted on the shoulders of the Prophets. 
Below are little figures of donors. The other window 
called La Belle Verri^ has the Virgin and Child sur- 
rounded by adoring angels, and beneath stories from the 
life of Christ. In both the Virgin and the Prophets there 
is an obvious strain of Byzantinism. In Fig. 85 from 


W. R. L. del. 


Face p. 180 



Laon may be observed the same tradition. Figures of 
donors appear on many of the lights of Chartres ; in the 
circles of the clerestory are mounted knights, amongst 
which is Guy deMontfort. (Plate 32.) In the south transept 

Fig. 85. Portion of window from Laon. 

are the Lord and Lady of Dreux and all the little Dreux. 
Other windows given by Guilds show pictures of daily 
business, a butcher killing cattle, a blacksmith shoeing a 
horse, carpenters, masons, a fur and mantle shop, and so 
on. Stained glass was well developed in France in the 
twelfth century. Theophilus tells us that at that time 
fVench glass was the most famous. 


Spire construction, again, also seems necessary to the 
full Gothic idea. Spires are in reality steep stone roofs. 
The scale of building became too vast to apply this 
method of covering to the chief spans, but we can see in 
such an example as Loches the germ of a constructive 
possibility never, it may be, fully explored. At St 
Nicholas, Caen, again the apse is covered with a stone- 
built roof, and smaller apsidal chapels here, at Norrey, 
and at Bourges Cathedral are covered in a similar way. 
Spire-building had reached an extraordinary development 
in France during the twelfth century, but in England it 
was rather timidly handled until the end of the thirteenth 

Stone-slab roofs were frequently used, especially in the 
south. The vast cathedral of Toledo seems to have been 
covered with ingeniously designed stone roofs of low pitch 
as were also other Spanish cathedrals. The outer aisle roofs 
of Notre Dame, Paris, are covered with laige slabs resting on 
arches. The magnificent pavements of engraved stone slabs 
may also here be mentioned. Those of St. Omer and of 
St. Nicaise, Reims (now at St. Remi), are the best known. 

A fine characteristic of first French Grothic is found in 
the use of monolithic columns, which often have the 
classic entasis. At V^lay the shafts themselves bear 
mouldings of slight projection close to the base, like 
their antique prototvpes. The free use of the monolithic 
column must be included among the expedients of all the 
highest architectures. The capitals and bases of such 
cylindrical columns are usually very noble. 

The eastern limbs of the cathedrals were enclosed 


between the pillars by high stone screens forming choirs. 
The finest existing enclosures are those of Paris and 
Amiens. At the west end of the choir was the puJpiiwn 
or jtibi^ a double stone screen carrying a loft, on which 
stood the nave rood, the choir organs, and a great lectern. 
The lower stage was an arcade, in the centre of which was 
the choir door, and right and left nave altars. The forms 
of ihejub^ of Paris, Chartres, Strasbourg, and Amiens are 
known from sketches taken before their destruction, and 
several of the lovely sculptured panels which adorned the 
front of those at Chartres and Bourges still exist. (Plate 33.) 
In the choir the high altar usually stood on the chord of 
the apse, and behind it, between the two central eastward 
columns, was the retro-altar, or altar of relics. A paint- 
ing preserved at Arras is the best authority for the 
original form and furnishings of such altars. Six slender 
columns of bronze or silver stood, three on each side of the 
high altar, carrying rods to which were suspended curtains, 
and bearing figures of angels who held the instruments of 
the Passion. Above and behind the altar was a silver 
reredos, or ^^table,^ as it was called. The early silver 
reredosand the altar of St. Denis are exquisitely delineated 
in a painting of Jean Van Eyck. 

At Amiens, behind the altar, was a second double stone 
screen like another pu^um with little winding stairs to 
mount to a platform, on which were exposed the precious 
shrines and other relics of the church. At the Sainte 
Chapelle there was a somewhat similar arrangement of 
great beauty, more like a baldachin, and with open spiral 
stairs. Above the high altar at Bourges was the ^^ ciel,^ or 
tester, above which again rose the choir rood, with images 

1 84 ALTARS 

of St Mary and St. John all painted and gilded. From 
the tester hung the tabernacle of the sacrament. On the 
left of the altar was a watching chamber from whence 
priests guarded the altar and its treasure through the night. 

At Arras a large tabernacle for the relics was supported 
between the two eastern pillars and directly above the 
relic altar, so as to be seen beyond and over the high altar. 
In front of the high altar at Bourges stood a tall, seven- 
branched candlestick. Across the choir ran a beam sup- 
porting lights, and to it was suspended the Lenten Veil, 
which divided the presbytery from the choir, on either side 
of which were the stalls for the clergy, and in the midst 
the eagle lectern. On feast days fine tapestries were 
hung in the arches above the stalls. 

The bishop^s throne, which earlier, in basilican arrange- 
ments, stood at the back of the apse, was later placed at 
the side of the altar. 

It is difficult to get a clear idea as to the typical form 
of west fronts, hardly one of which is complete or homo- 
geneous. St. Denis, Senlis, Notre Dame at Chalons, and 
Chartres best represent the transitional forms; and of 
these the Chylous church, with its two western leaded 
spires and rose-window, is the most complete ; while the 
scheme of Chartres must have been the most stately and 
furthest advanced of its age (Fig. 91). Laon, Paris, and 
Mantes are a linked group built, or b^un, about 1 200. Of 
these Laon was the earliest, and set the type. A rough 
view printed before the destruction of tiie stone spire 
which, before 1793, surmounted the south-west tower (it is 
doubtful whether its companion was ever completed), 





















allows us to gain some impression of what was aimed at in 
all these facades. When complete it would have risen 
nearly three squares high. The lowest square is occupied 
by the sculptured doors with the rose and two lateral 
windows above ; the next tier by a gallery over the rose, 
and two towers pierced through aiid through with tall 
openings, while the acute crocketed spires rising from 
these towers would form the third stage. 

Holy Trinity, Caen, possesses one of the completest of 
west fronts, but the lower part is plain Norman, and the 
towers are* of transition work; only the spires, which are 
magnificent, are fully Grothic. Coutances, also in Nor- 
mandy, has a remarkable west front. The portal front of 
Notre Dame, Paris, is the classic example of work balanced 
in its enthusiasm and power; here strong horizontal bands 
are more marked than in any other example ; but we must 
remember that the towers were certainly intended to bear 
high spires as at Laon, which would have greatly modified 
this effect. 

In most of these fronts, as also at Reims, spoken of in 
another place, the peak of the gable is masked between the 
two towers by a horizontal arcaded gallery. At Rouen, 
Reims, and elsewhere the contrivance by whidi, through 
having immense openings pierced in them, the towers 
were designed not to block the light in the church, 
resulted in extraordinarily open construction. At Laon 
the pinnacles and stakcases are open cages of pillaw, and 
the whole tower IS seen against the sky like the silhouette 
of a traceried tabernacle. 

Of fa^es a little later in date the ruins of St. Jean des 
Vignes, Soissons, is a fine example. 


Early French Gothic building is characterised by 
simplicity, directness, and clearness. The details are 
larger than corresponding work in England. Arches, 
shafts, and capitals are not, as a rule, channelled into a 
multiplicity of mouldings. It was felt that beyond a 
certain point ^Metail^ must change its character into 
carving, and again, beyond a point, that ornamental 
carving must give way to sculpture. French sculpture of 
the great period is only to be rivalled by the finest Greek 

Fig. 86. French Gothic mouldings. 

work ; and the ornamental carving was bolder, freer, and 
more varied than ours — directly inspired by Nature, but 
not servilely imitative. 

In the mouldings of French churches of the best period 
all evidence of the squared courses and orders out of which 
they are hewn does not disappear ; the profiles glorify, but 
do not disguise, the masonry. In Fig. 86, A is a vaulting 
rib &om Chartres, B is an arch profile from Lyons, both 
standards of excellence. In Fig. 87 the cutting is exces- 
sive, except in the case of the base C from Noyon, which is 
typical of fine French bases. D is a window jamb, E an 
arch impost, €Uid F a string moulding, all from Norrey. 



The question of moulding is one of the most difficult 
to explain. Up to a point, moulding has some practical 
justification, as in the rounding of an edge, but this takes 
us a very little way. Generally it is a means of bringing 

Fig. 87. D, E, F, Gothic mouldings from Normandy. C, Base from Noyon. 

delicacy into the scale of a building, and, in the mtdn, 
moulding is a method of emphasis and of shading in the 
solid. Here, quick hollows give an expression of force ; 
there, soft rounds form transitions and middle tones. 

Alongside of the structural development of Gothic 

1 88 " OVER-GOTHIC' 

building into functional members, the general law of 
concentration and activity went far beyond structural 
implications into a code of expression to which we usually 
and disguisingly give the name of ^^ decoration.^ Of course, 
" decoration "^ tended to become the symbol of the pride 
of a bishop and the wealth of a merchant ; but, at the best, 
it was the vehicle for other ideas than richness. As Gothic 
construction was energetically pressed forward, arches were 
sharpened, vaults were made wider, all excess of material 
was taken from pillars, and window-lights drew together 
by much the same law that makes the honeycomb an 
example of bar tracery. But beyond all these due results 
of the Gk>thic principle of construction, the builders desired 
an expression of tense nervous energy, till works like the 
fronts of Reims, Strasbourg and Abbeville seem electrical* 
and as if the stone leapt into spray of flame. (Plate 34.) 

It is necessary to separate clearly the essential Grothic of 
structure, the art of thrust and parry, from this over-Grothic 
of expression ; the one dealt with universal laws of 
building constant for all time, and the other, towards the 
end, passed into highly specialised forms of local and 
momentary meaning, and was at times even morbid and 
hjTsterical. It is, however, just these special ^^Gk)thic^ 
forms, never properly apprehended, as copying them 
proved, which made the stock-in-trade of those who 
professed to supply modem Gothic art. 

Organic Gk)thic, let me repeat, must last for ever as a 
theory of building; phenomenal Gothic, as it in fact 
existed in the past, was possible only to the moments 
which produced it. 

We can trace the historical development of what I have 



Facep, leS 




cnt enamel, so that 

u*t shows that ours 

eat ogival style, a 

ii*t of Normaiidy. 

dit is a derivative 

fuisitely beautiful 

ious, and, it may 

is so, at least to 

interpretation of 

>ossessed by the 


the expressive result is most lovely of that which later 
became a parasitic growth which went far to strangle the 
style. At the high tide of Gothic there was sufficient 
intellectual motive, realised or inherited, to give this 
overlay a justification, were it only that quality of 
romance which lights up all forms of thirteenth-century 

As an instance of inherited custom, it may be said that 
tabernacle-work as associated with sculpture had a 
traditional meaning, which can be traced far back into 
Romanesque art. In miniatures and reliefs, when the 
action of the figures represented was taking place within 
a building, it' was usual to indicate gables and domes and 
towers along the top margin, and to carry do¥m pieces 
of wall or column on the sides. Early examples of archi- 
tectural canopy-work like those above twelfth-century 
representations of the Virgin (compare Fig. 84) clearly 
show this origin. In such situations tabernacle-work is a 
general expression for the heavenly temple. 

In their use of imitation traoery-omament we can, 
perhaps, hardly follow or understand mediaeval artists. It 
seems to me that stained-glass windows of the great time 
— ^whole rows of them, as we see at Chartres, Bourges, 
Strasbourg — ^were, when lit up by the sun into living 
emerald, ruby and sapphire, so marvellously beautiful, so 
full of the life of light, that it came about that little 
figures of windows, used decoratively, were more than 
mere patterns, they were symbols of windows and of all 
that windows meant For instance, there is in South 
Kensington Museum a romantic silver drinking-cup 
(c. 1320), whose sides are pierced with tiny traceried 


windows which are filled with transparent enamel, so that 
the wine was lit up with stained-glass windows. 

Comparison of French and English art shows that ours 
was but a provincial variety of the great ogival style, a 
patois, as Viollet le Due says of the art of Normandy. 
English Gothic is not the most typical, and it is a derivative 
of French art But, for all that, it is exquisitely beautiful 
— something more wildling, less self-conscious, and, it may 
be, even more tender and pathetic. It is so, at least to 
English eyes, for they must bring to the interpretation of 
this art some similar faculties to those possessed by the 
men who built the monuments of our land. 



In the century from about 1 150 to 1250, Gothic building 
in the North of France made extraordinary progress. 
Absorbing at first what it needed from neighbouring 
schools, it soon surpassed them all, and the product is 
on a different plane from the rest, and forms the typical 
Great Gothic of the cathedrals. St. Etienne at Beauvais, 
and St. Denis are important links in the transition. 
St. Etienne (c. 11 20) is still somewhat rude, and stands on 
the Romanesque side of the style boundary. St. Denis, 
that is such old parts as still remain, is on the Gothic 
side. It is refined, clear, and energetic. Every artistic 
possibility was brought to bear on the church, and stained 
glass, sculpture, bronze, and mosaic adorned the most 
advanced construction of the time. It was begun in 
1 137, and in 1143 mass was celebrated at the high altar 
dtuing a storm, when the ribs of the incomplete vault 
were seen to sway in the wind. 

Noyon and Senlis Cathedrals have much in common 
with St. Denis. The data in regard to Noyon have lately 
been re-examined by Lefbvre Pontalis. In 1131 the 
earlier church was destroyed by fire. The erection of the 




Face p. 192 

NOYON 193 

choir of the cathedral probably took place between 
c. 1140-57, as in 1157 the Archbishop of Reims trans- 
lated the relics of Eloi, the local saint, into a new shrine. 
This part of the cathedral agrees very closely with the 
apse of St. Gkrmain des Fr&, Paris, which is known to 
have been consecrated in 1163. The treasury and the 
circular-ended transepts of Noyon were probably com- 
pleted c. 1 170, while the nave may be dated c. 1190. 
After a fire in 1293 the vaults of the nave fell in ; they 
were soon afterwards rebuilt with new flying buttresses. 

At the east end Noyon is distinctly transitional in tjrpe. 
There are pointed windows in the apse, but in the ad- 
joining wider bays they are circular-headed. The columns 
around the easton apse are rather slender monoliths with 
vigorous capitals. As in several of these transition 
churches, the triforium is entirely vaulted ; such gallery 
vaults sustained the high vault. The nave triforium has 
pointed arches with sub-arches and a pierced trefoil in 
the spandrik. The derestoiy has coupled round-headed 
lights, recessed from the outside under a containing 
circular arch. The columns of the ground arcade are 
alternately circular and compound. The main vaulting 
shafts rise from the ground at the alternate piers, and 
support transverse arch ribs of considerable size. The other 
shafts start from the caps of the columns. This seems 
to show, as Viollet le Due has observed, that the vault 
was at first of the six-celled variety. The repetition 
of the great arches of the crossing obtained by running 
down the alternate vaulting shafts to the ground is most 
satisfactory. The aisle circumscribing the apse has 
circular chapels projecting from it. Behind them, as 



seen from outside, rises the circular wall of the trifo- 
rium with its own range of windows, and behind that 
again the apse proper. At the west end are two noble 
towers, and a triple porch forming an open narthex, there 
are also delightful cloisters and a chapter-house. The 
porch, built c. 1270, has had all its sculpture hacked 
away, but the vestiges show that this must have been 
admirable. All that is left is some exquisite foliage and 
three little panels on the mid-post of the door, types of 
Christ who stood above — ^the Phcenix, the Lion, and the 

In 1 1 55 was begun Notre Dame, Senlis, and this also 
is of earliest pointed work, severe and strong. At first 
it was planned as a simple ^^vesseP^ without transepts, 
which were not added till the last days of Grothic. The 
piers are alternately grouped and cylindrical, the trifo- 
rium has a large single opening to each bay, the arches 
are in square orders with beaded angles, the apse is 
surrounded by chapels. The church was completed in 
1 1 84, except the upper part of the west front, and it 
was dedicated in 1191. The extraordinarily elegant 
fl^he was built about 1240. 

Much more important than either of these is the 
great cathedral of Laon. It had already been in course 
of erection for some time in 11749 and it was pro- 
bably begun about 1160. It had long been a puzzle 
that this church should have a square end to the east ; 
but foundations have been found which show that at first 
it had an apsidal termination, the chord of which was 
at the third bay from the crossing. Signs of this are still 

LAON 195 

perfectly clear in the work. At this point the capitals of 
the great columns begin to curve, and two other capitals 
eastward on each side are also curved on plan, showing 
that they were rebuilt from their former position in an apse 
which must have had four columns and five bays (Fig. 88).* 
The first work seems to have been finished to the west, 
including the three sculptured portals, by about 1200, and 
the lengthening of the east end must have been under- 
taken directly after, as practically the same style is main- 
tained throughout. The arcade of cylindrical pillars 
with bold capitals about three feet deep, is very fine. 
There is a vast triforium entirely vaulted, and galleries 
across the ends of the nave and transepts make a con- 
tinuous upper storey. The central space is covered with 
six-celled vaulting, and to the exterior there are fine 
flying buttresses. Over the crossing is a low lantern- 
tower, and at the ends of the aisles of nave and transepts 
rise six singularly beautiful towers which were intended to 
have high spires of stone. One at least of these spires 
was in existence when Villars de Honnecourt made his 
drawing of it — "the most beautiful tower he had ever 
seen ^ (Fig. 89). It lasted until the Revolution. Around 
the base from which these spires sprang are open pinnacles 
which are inhabited by stone oxen, who push out their 
heads between the pillars and look down upon the town. 
These towers open to the galleries across the ends of the 
interior with tall arches which rise as high as the clerestory ; 
they thus are not mere attachments, but form an integral 
part of the building. The windows (before later altera- 
tions) were wide lancets of nearly equal size, in ground- 
* The sqnare extension would give more room about the relic shrine. 

Fia 88. Ground plan of Laon CatbedraL 

Fig. 89. V. de Honnecourt's sketch of one of the west towers at Laon. 


stage, triforium, and clerestory. The four arms of the 
extended church were lighted by as many great roses, 
three of which are still filled with splendid glass. The 
great triple-bayed porch, and the west front generally, has 
much beautiful old sculpture. This fa9ade of Laon set 
the type followed at Paris and Mantes of squaring across 
the top with a gall^. The west front of Reims has a 
similar termination. At Noyon, between the two towers 
is seen the preparation for a very tall open gallery, which 
connected them and heightened the front. 

In the original plan of Laon we have a completely 
organic distribution of parts. The avenues of arcades of 
the interior are buttressed by the six towers, north, south 
and west, while to the east they continued around in a 
semicircle. Over the crossing the lantern-tower gave 
light and significance to the central point of the church, 
and almost beneath it stood the high altar. 

It was chiefly in regard to Laon that Viollet le Due 
propounded his celebrated theory as to the civic use of 
cathedrals, and the opposition between cathedral and 
monastic ideals. His view, which he supported by 
reference to the curious hall-like plan of Laon, necessarily 
fails in regard to what has now been shown * to have been 
its earlier foi-m. It has been combated by Quicherat, 
Anthyme St. Paul, and others, and can no longer be 

Laon is an especially interesting centre of early Gothic 
monuments ; but a building usually cited as amongst the 
earliest of transitional works, the chapel in the Bishop's 

* V. le Due in a note to another passage shows that he knew of the 
earlier form, 


UPPER PART. c. 1260 

Face p. 198 

SENS 199 

palace, has recently been proved to have been erected after 
1155, instead of directly after 11 12. 

Sens Cathedral was being built in the period 1144-68. 
VioUet le Due showed, in his article ^^ Transept,^ that it 
was at first built without a crossing, having only two 
chapels opening firom the aisles, the great arcade and 
vault being continuous from the east to the west. There 
were no eastern chapels, ^cept probably a central one, as 
at Canterbury. The high vault is in sexpartite com- 
partments, falling alternately on compound piers and 
columns coupled transversely. A substantial arch divides 
off each compound bay of the vault from its neighbours. 
The triforium is unimportant. The capitals are very 
noble ; although so early, they are finished works, classical 
of their kind. The church contains some good early 
glass, and at the west door there are beautiful sculptures. 
(Plate 36.) Adjoining the church is a magnificent thir- 
teenth-century Synod Hall, now terribly restored.* 

There is the closest resemblance between Sens and the 
work at our own Canterbury, begun in 1174, by a Sens 
master. Every shopkeeper at Sens knows of the architect 
of Canterbury. 

Notre Dame, Paris, was begun about 1162. In the 
chronicle of Robert de Monte, under 1 177^ we read : ** For 
a considerable time Maurice, the Bishop of Paris, has been 
labouring earnestly and profitably for the building of the 
church of that city, the head (eastern limb) of which is 
now finished with the exception of the great roof {mqfori 
tedorio) ; if this undertaking be completed there will be 

* The building accounts of Sens, as yet unpublished, are preserved 
in the public library at Auzerre. 



none to rival it on our side of the Alps." The high altar 
was consecrated in 1 182 and the church was finished, includ- 
ing the lower half of the west 
fix)nt, about 1225. (Plate 35.) 
As first built the scheme was 
very large and simple, the apse 
having double aisles surroimd- 
ingit, which continued through- 
out, but no chapels. The rows of 
great cylindrical columns of the 
interior arcades form the most 
perfect of supports and the 
capitals are severe and fine. 
The transepts are of slight pro- 
jection and without aisles. The 
triforium is vaulted and the 
second aisle allowed of its 
having external support, as it 
in turn supported the central 

Notre Dame thus rises in 
three graduated storeys; each 
tier was lighted by a row of 

similar lancets. The high vault 
Fig. oa Plan of Notre Dame, Paris. • • • n j ^1. 

^ IS m six-celled compartments, 

and further supported by bold flying buttresses. At the 
west end rise two towers, each one standing over the double 
aisle. Soon after the completion of the church a series of 
modifications were undertaken at the east end. The cleres- 
tory lancets were now subdivided into two lights each, with 
circles above ; radiating chapels were added to the ambula- 


tory, and the nave chapels and present transept ends were 
built The clerestory windows were glazed with figures of 
bishops eighteen feet high, which are now entirely destroyed. 
The rose windows are especially fine, both in the tracery 
and the glass, Whittingham a century ago says : ** The 
three marigold windows which still retain their painted 
glass are the most magnificent I have anywhere seen ^ (^e 
Fig. 8i). The original form of plan with transepts in line 
with the aisles may be compared with Fig. 68. The 
vaulting of the interior is sexpartite. As the columns 
and vaulting shafts of the main arcade do not mark this 
fact, Professor Moore, in accordance with his theory of 
Grothicness, makes the suggestion that the church was 
built for four-part vaults, but at the last moment they 
made the change to the existing form. V. le Due, however 
(art. Ogive)y shows how the whole vaulting scheme follows 
from the geometiical conditions of the form of the apse 
and choir, and in another place he shows how the vault 
system of the nave is marked in the alternating piers of the 
nave-aisles, as may be seen on our plan. The towers of the 
west front must have been prepared for spires which were 
never erected. (See Fig. 91, on which there is a great statue 
of the Virgin between the towers. And see Appendix.) 

Mantes Cathedral is in much a smaller version of Notre 
Dame. The monolithic columns of the apse with their 
fine jutting capitals, the vaulted triforium and the roof 
covered with coloured tiles arranged in a great pattern, 
are all particularly interesting. 

At Soissons in the circular south transept, of which I 
have already spoken, the three main divisions of the 



ground storey are each subdivided into three by slender 
monolithic columns; the triforium repeats the same 
arrangement, and it is vaulted like the ground storey. In 
the clerestory are three lancet windows to each bay. A 
fine circular chapel opens in a south-eastern direction from 
the curved transept. The rest of the church was rebuilt 
about twenty years later than the date of this transept. 


Fig. 91. Notre Dame, Sainte Chapelle, and clock tower of 
Palace. From Froissart MS. at British Museum. 

Here the clerestory windows are coupled and have foiled 
circles above. The whole church is now terribly restored, 
but there is a fine porch opening east of the nortii transept. 
Of much the same character as the south transept of 
Soissonsis the fine apse with its radiating chapels of St. Remi, 
Reims. The earlier church, of Romanesque work, was com- 
pletely recast in the latter half of the twelfth century,and the 
width of the central span gives this apse particular distinc- 
tion. The triforium is vaulted and each bay is lighted with 


three lancets ; the clerestory has also three lancets to each 
bay, and all these windows are filled with fine early 
glass. Each of the radiating chapels, instead of opening 
by a single arch from the ambulatory, has three arches 
on slender columns. On the outside there are powerful 
flying buttresses. The Romanesque Churdi of Notre 
Dame, Chalons, was altered about the same time as St. 
Remi, and it would seem by the same master, so closely 
do the two choirs resemble each other. The fine west 
front is of something the same type as Chartres. 

Still another cathedral in the same line of descent from 
St. Remi is Auxerre, b^^n in 1215. Here only the Lady 
chapel at the east end of the apse opens to the ambulatory 
through three arches ; there are no other apsidal chapels, 
but the outer sides of the ambulatory bays are all divided 
into three sub-bays. The apse is especially noble as seen 
from without, standing high above the river. The west 
doors are exquisitely sculptured (c. 1265); the windows 
have magnificent glass later in character than the Chartres 
and Boiu*ges windows with their backgrounds of sapphire, 
here there are deep murrey purples and fair apple greens. 
The large collegiate church of St. Quentin before mentioned. 
Fig. 69, stands in this same series. 

The beautiful early Gothic choir of Vezelay may also be 
mentioned here. 

The Cathedral of Chartres dates in the main fix)m a 
rebuilding following a great fire in 1194. The west front, 
however, is largely of work anterior to that date, and the 
planning of the rest, including the magnificent chevet, was 
conditioned by the crypt of the older church. There is a 


double ambulatory around the apse, with circular chapels 
opening from the outer one. The important transepts 
have aisles, over the ends of which stand towers, two to 
each transept. By one of the great strokes of French 
genius, each of these towers, which of course cover the end 
bays of the clerestory on both sides of the transepts, is 
pierced with large openings on its three free sides, similar 
to the clerestory window on its inner side, which is so well 
lighted by this means, tliat from within it is not noticeable 
that the bay is blocked. This treatment is a develop- 
ment upon Laon, and became the standard one for 
cathedrals of the first lunk. At the west end are two 
great towers with spires, one of which was built before the 
fire, which it escaped, and it still remains one of the most 
stately in the world. TVo other low towers flank the 
apse: eight towers in all. Tlie mighty flying buttresses 
have here attained a high stage of development. Tlie 
vaulting of the interioi is no longer sezpartite but each 
bay is complete in itself. The clerestory windows are of 
great size, two wide lancets, with a rose above, filling out 
the entire bay. Most of the superb stained glass is intact, 
save for a recent restoration. The special glory of Chartres 
is, perhaps, to be found in its portals. At the west end 
are three doors (c. 1150-60), and open porches of the 
thirteenth century spread right across each transept, all of 
them being crowded with the finest sculptures. Chartres 
is a work which stands apart between the first and second 
phases of Gothic, but it derives much from Laon. The 
placing of the towers is similar, and it was but a step to 
fill the great open tower arches, like those of Laon, with 
clerestory windows. The transept porches have their pro- 



totypes in the west porches of Laon, where some of the 
details, like the spirally fluted columns under the statues, 
and the Jesse tree on 
the arch, are almost 
identical. The rose 
windows in both 
churches are also 
clearly related; so is 
the clerestory at 
Chartres to the clois- 
ter openings at Laon. 
A volume might be 
filled by the several 
articles which have 
been written upon the 
original form of the 
west front. Excava- 
tions, as well as the 
plain indications on 
the side walls, show 
that there was a nar- 
thex or porch which 
occupied the space be- 
tween the towers, and 
it is said that there is 
evidence enough to 
show that the present 
finely-sculptured west 
doors were formerly at the back of the porch instead 
of at the front. These precious doors are in any case 
one work with the lower part of the south-west 

Fig. 92. Quutres Cathedral, west front. 


tower. The lower part of the north-west tower had been 
built still earlier, and in advance of the then existing 
church, but apparently in preparation for the arrangement 
which was to follow. After re-examination my own view 
is that these doorways were built where they now stand 
together with the windows above them and the S. W. tower. 
The three wide lancets above the doors must, it seems, 
belong to mid-twelfth-centuiy work, for in one of them is 
a wonderful Jesse-tree in stained glass which, as shown by 
Mr. Westlake, so closely resembles the Jesse-tree placed 
by Abbot Suger in St. Denis (c. 1142) that he believes 
both are from the same atelier and the work of the same 
artist. The date of the St. Denis window is certain, for it 
bears a small ^^ signature^ figure of Suger himself. The 
upper part of the west front, containing the rose window, 
belongs to the heightened thirteenth-century church. The 
north-west spire was built in its present form early in the 
sixteenth century ; before that time there was a tall 
leaded spire erected about 1390. 

Reims Cathedral opens the period of perfect maturity. 
A more ancient church having been burnt, the present 
structure was begun in 121 1, and the choir was occu- 
pied in 1 241. The nave and the west end soon fol- 
lowed, and the great west porches were built about the 
middle of the thirteenth century. The west front is a 
miracle of imagination and workmanship, and the planning 
and proportions of the interior are of the greatest beauty. 
The supports, neither too massive nor slender, still stand 
perfectly upright. The plan is one of the most unaltered 
left to us, and the crown of radiating chapek became the 



REIMS 207 

type for all later efforts. The triforium is but a small 
wall arcade, and the windows from this time became all 
in all. At Reims perfected tracery first appears. One 
pattern of a two-light window with foiled circle above, all 
in *^ bar-tracery,^ having been designed, it was repeated 
throughout the charch, some seventy or eighty times, the 
same in the aisles and chapels as in the clerestory above 
(Rg. 78). The lights in the clerestory are very wide 
and tall, the two lights filling out the whole bay, and 
each one being eight or nine feet wide. Thirty-one double- 
light windows fill the clerestory of the central alley, 
nearly all of which retain thirteenth-century glass of 
the greatest splendour. It is to be noticed how the 
plane of the windows is kept towards the inside of the 
walls here, and in othei* places where there is fine glass, so 
that the glass may be seen as well as possible in an oblique 
view (Fig. 67). At the west end and in both transepts, 
as in Chartres, there are fine roses, those of the transepts 
following the Laon type. The columns of the ground 
storey are formed of central circles with four attached 
shafts, one of which is continued upward as the main 
vaulting shaft. The transverse arches of the vault are 
much bigger than the diagonal ribs, and each compartment 
is in four cells. There are two large western towers and 
two others at each transept which follow the Chartres 
model. There is an elegant fl^che on the point of the apse 
roof, and a taller fl^he once rose over the crossing. It is 
unnecessary to suppose that this and the transeptal towers 
were ever intended to be of the exa^erated height 
suggested by VioUet le Due ; there is, indeed, no prepara- 
tion beneath for such stru<;tur?8, The finely designed 


fl3dng buttresses are weighted by huge open pinnacles, in 
each of which dwells an angel with wide-spreading wings. 
There are three sculptured doors at the north transept, 
besides the western porches, to the sculptures of which we 
shall return later. (See Plates 37 and 46-49.) 

Reims is undoubtedly the protot3rpe of Westminster 
Abbey, which shows evidence of close study of the French 
coronation church. 

The old cathedral of Amiens was burnt in 12 18, and its 
reconstruction on a vast scale was at once undertaken. 
Owing to local circumstances, and contrary to usual 
practice, the west end was begun first. This west end was 
pushed forward with great rapidity, and was completed, 
together with its sculptures, before 1230. By 1236 the 
nave was opened for worship, and by 1243 the west towers 
had received their beUs. The eastern work was then 
cairied on with equal energy. The central upper window 
of the east end is dated 1269, and the cathedral was sub- 
stantially completed, when, on the i6th of May in this 
year, the body of St. Firmin was ti'anslated into his new 
shrine, in the presence of the King of France and the son of 
Henry III., afterwards Edward I. This largest of Frrach 
churches ranks also among the most perfect. The structure 
clearly shows that Reims had been studied, the design 
of the nave-bays, with their pillars, arcades and aisle win- 
dows, being practically the same. The transverse vaulting 
ribs are here also larger than the diagonal ribs.* The 

* It has been pointed out above, p. 156, that this tradition in French 
work arose from the desire to echo the great arches of the crossing 
throughout the church. In English work the crossing arches are not 
so related, except at Durham, a Norman example. 


IMjl KiiJ> < Alin IH<AL VVtxr Hjkt lli^s 



greatest difference is in the much more important tri- 
forium, and in the four-light traceried windows of the 
clerestory, which are substituted for the abnormally wide 
two-light windows of Reims. The special wonder of 
Amiens, after the portal, is the row of windows in the 
transepts, three on each side (c. 1250). They are here of 
six lights, and the triforium arcade beneath them is also 
glazed, on a second plane of course, towards the outside 
of the wall. This same treatment is continued around the 
choir. The area of glass is thus, in this eastern limb, 
enormous. The end window of the north transept is of 
the most intricate but lovely tracery, the last step before 
decline. Amiens is built on a transeptal plan, but there 
are no transeptal towers: instead of these, enormous 
buttresses take the interior pressure. At the west end, 
again, there are not the ordinary towers standing over the 
last bays of the aisles, but comparatively unimportant 
towers with colossal buttresses rise above the two lateral 
porches. These are oblong on plan, being much narrower 
from west to east than towards the facade, and it is plain 
they could never have been intended to be carried up to 
any considerable height. The fafade was probably from 
the first intended to finish in the square form of the 
present front. Over the crossing was, as at present, a 
slender fleche of wood covered with lead. The idea at 
Amiens was to enclose the biggest possible reservoir of air 
and light, and towers were deliberately given up. Alto- 
gether, notwithstanding its great reputation, the sight of 
Amiens is ever a fresh surprise. (See Plates 44, 45, 53*55-) 

Another vast cathedral was begun at Bourges at about 



the same time ; but here Notre Dame, Paris, instead of 
Reims, was taken as the model. In this immense church 
there are no transepts, and no towers other than those at 
the west front. Double aisles surround the apse, and con- 
tinue right down the nave. Five gabled and splendidly 
sculptured porches at the west front give access to the nave 
and aisles. (Plate 38.) At Paris the two aisles are vaulted at 
the same height, but above the inner one there is a vaulted 
upper storey. At Bourges, however, this upper gallery is 
suppressed, and the additional height is given to the 
inner aisle, which is very lofty, and has clerestory windows 
above the outer aisle. Here, as at Paris, the high vault is 
of the six-celled variety. At the apse the windows are 
pushed high up into the vault, leaving but a thin web of 
stone at the back of the ribs between them ; in these webs 
are circular piercings, through which the light of the win- 
dows may be seen. The clerestory windows are of two- 
and three-grouped lights with foiled circles above, but all 
separate, and not combined into bar-tracery. Owing to 
there being no transepts, the long curay of flying but- 
tresses is here a more marked feature than anywhere else. 
The simple vastness of this building is wonderfully im- 
pressive, and the early glass in quantity and quality is only 
rivalled by Chartres. 

Beauvais Cathedral is only a fragment, but the mightiest 
fragment in the world. Only the eastern limb and cross* 
ing were ever begun, and on the site where the nave would 
have been built still stands the nave of one of the roost 
interesting early churches in France, completed about 
1000, and known as the Basse (Euvre, in relation to its 


From a drawing by Mr. T. J/. Rooke 


Face p. 210 


towering neighbour, the Haute CEuvre. The chevet was 
begun in 1247 and finished in 127 1. Height and slightness, 
however, had been pushed beyond the limits of even ten^* 
porary safety, and a part of the great vault fell in 1284. 
The dimensions, indeed, are enormous — ^the spans of the 
three bays of the eastern limb are 29.6, 28.9, and 25.9 
between centres respectively. The width of the central 
span is 45 ft. ; the crown of the vault is 150 ft. above the 
pavement, and the exterior ridge rises to 210 ft. It was 
repaired by means of subdividing the bays and other 
additional works. These repairs were not completed till 
about 1324, when the apse windows were glazed. The 
transepts were not completed till 1548, and, notwithstand- 
ing their former experience, a great lantern and fleche were 
reared over the crossing, rising to the height of 475 ft. 
Completed about 1555, this fleche, the last word of Grothic 
art, fell in 1573. In spite of its many modifications, 
the interior of the chevet is of the most satisfying beauty, 
and the exterior, as seen from the east, is quite perfect. 
It follows the Boui*ges type in the great height of the 
ambulatory, which is lighted by clerestory windows over 
the chapels. It resembled Reims in being prepared for 
transepts with terminal towers. It is unequalled in the 
window areas of the chevet — below, through the ground 
arches, are seen the windows of the chapels and the 
clerestory of the aisle ; then above, around the bow of the 
apse and along the clerestory, are great foiled windows, no 
less than 50 ft high, close beneath which is a tall triforium 
passage also pierced ijour. 

Rouen Choir belongs to the first quarter of the thirteenth 

212 ROUEN 

century. (Plate 39.) At the. west end a supremely noble 
tower is of an earlier period as perhaps are two doorways as 
well. The circular chapels at the east end also appear to 
follow an older plan. Indeed, it is'probable that the plan is 
altogether the old one with extended transepts and a few 
other alterations. The western towers are not at the ends 
of the aisles, but stand clear to the north and south, 
making a wide extended front, as was the case in some 
English cathedrals. A fine lantern which supported a 
tall leaded spire rises over the crossing. There are two 
towers at the ends of each transept, following the Chartres 
type. The evidence as to the west front was much 
obscured in the last century by the addition of other 
buttress masses like those two of the early sixteenth 
century which flank the central door. As shown in 
Cotman^'s engraving, the design of the lower stage of the 
west front with an arcade above the doors was easy to 
follow. After special examination my final opinion is that 
this work with the two doors mentioned above was built 
after 1200. (Plate 40.) 

At the end of the twelfth centuiy, in the last years 
that Rouen was held by English kings, ^* a work ^ was in 
progress; possibly the west front and north-west tower. 
Then, in 1200, came a great fire. ^^ In this year,^ says our 
Ilovenden, ^ was burnt the whole city of Rouen, with the 
Archbishop^s church and many others.^ Four miserable 
years followed, and then Philip Augustus pushed John out 
of his Norman realm and capital. The building of the 
present church followed immediately, and it was virtually 
completed about 1235. The present transept-ends belong 
to the latter half of the thirteenth century, and the Lady 



Face p. 212 


chapel followed, about 1300. The later works are exqui- 
site examples of the most mature Gothic construction. 

The chevet of Le Mans must just be noticed as another 
example of High Gothic. It shares the characteristics ot 
Norman Gothic as well as of the more strictly French 
style. The rebuilding of the Romanesque church was 
b^n about 12 18, but the noble transepts, with their 
great traceried windows, were not reached for another 
century, and the low Romanesque nave, with a severely 
beautiful west front, still remains to us. The apse is 
magnificent, and there is a new departure in the buttress 
scheme and outer chapels which was later elaborated at 
Toledo, which Street and other writers regard as the great 
consummation of apse planning. At Le Mans the buttresses 
over the inner ambulatory radiate in the usual way, then 
over the outer ambulatoiy,for there are two as at Boui^ges, 
each flying buttress forks into two, forming a Y. The glass 
of lie Mans ranks with the best. 

In Normandy and Anjou the early Grothic work has 
well-marked differences from the French school. One of 
the earliest transitional examples is Lisieux Cathedral, 
partly built by the bishop who held the see between 1141 
and 1 182, and probably begun c. 1160. Coutances, with 
its taU central tower and extraordinarily romantic western 
towers and spires, all of early Gothic work, is one of the 
eompletest cathedrals in existence. With these must be 
mentioned the apse of the Abbaye aux Hommes at Caen, 
and also the two superb spires of its western front. 

Angers Cathedral at the beginning of the twelfth 
century followed the ordinary form of a Romanesque 
church. About 1145 a work of transformation was begun 


by which all the interior arcades were swept away, and 
large buttress masses having been built outside what had 
been the aisle walls, the whole was covered by a vault in a 
single span of about fifty feet wide. The simplicity of the 
plan, consisting of an unbroken cross, covered by great 
quadripartite vaults (those constructed over the nave were 
built about 1150), looks more like a separate departure 
than a modification of any vaults which had up to this 
time been erected in the He de France (see Fig. 74). 

Even of the churches which I have seen, I have spoken 
in this chapter only of those which are of special interest 
in the development of Gothic architecture; but I can 
hardly leave the subject without at least writing the 
names of Autun, Avallon, Nevers, Strasbourg, Lausanne, 
Geneva, Dijon, Troyes, St. Omer, St. Lo, Tours, Abbe- 
ville, Bayeux, Mont St. Michel, and Cologne, which is 
hardly the less French for having been built beyond the 
boundaries of France. This last, the biggest of all Gothic 
churches, which was begun in 1248, is very much a combi- 
nation of Amiens and Beauvais. The upper part of the 
nave and the west front are modem, and the whole has 
been passed through the mill of restoration, but nothing 
can destroy the beauty of the great choir and apse. 
Cologne marks the end of a period. 



Face p. 214 



Twice in the history of Art has sculpture reached a mark 
which placed it apart from that of all other periods. The 
finest Greek or Gothic sculpture takes its place as the 
crown of architecture. Each had the power of combining 
many works into a great whole; in both the subject- 
matter is of high epic character, and the workmanship 
worthily answers to the intention. 

The concourse of saints which peopled the deep porches 
of a Gothic cathedral, gleaming in fair colour from out of 
a shadowed atmosphere, must have intensely moved the 
beholders. We may readily see in Chaucer, and in other 
mediaeval writings, how sculptured stories were seen as 
living dramas. Indeed, to the mediaeval mind sculptures 
had something of the supernatural about them. They 
were creations ; and it may be doubted, with ajl admira- 
tion for the stone and bronze dolls made by modem 
hands, whether the finest art can be produced with less 
imaginative emotion. As an instance, notice Dante'^s 
description of the images of the Virgin and the angel, 
" wherein Nature'^s self was put to shame.^ " There, sculp- 
tured in a gracious attitude, he did not seem an image 


that is silent, one would have sworn that he was saying 

* Ave.^ And in her mien this language was impressed 

* Ecce ancilla Dei ' as distinctly as any figui'e stamps 
itself in wax/^ Still earlier, Herimann of Toumay, telling 
of the shrine of St. Piat, says that on it were represented 
the five wise and the five foolish virgins, ^^ who all seemed 
to weep and to be alive ; these shed tears like water, those 
like blood/' Dante in two words defines the purpose of 
sculpture as " visible speech." 

Sculpture of the earlier Byzantine school gradually 
spread over Europe; two of the best examples of the 
middle period are our own Ruthwell and Bewcastle 
crosses, works probably of the eighth century, in which 
are figures and groups arranged according to a well- 
ordered iconographical tradition. With the Secondary 
Byzantine school the interrupted energy in image-making 
burst foi-th anew, and in the form of ivories and metal- work 
figure-designs were soon distributed over the West from 
Constantinople, and many schools soon arose in the bronze- 
working centres of Grermany, in North and South France 
and in North Italy. 

We cannot follow the development of sculpture through 
the Romanesque period in detail, but I must make a pass- 
ing reference to the bronze font at Li^ge, of which there 
is a cast at South Kensington, which is the most remark- 
able work of art, in an historical sense, of any known to 
me. It is known to be the work of Renierus, a goldsmith 
of Huy, near Dinant, and was cast about 1115. It is a 
circular vessel, surrounded by subjects from the life of 
John the Baptist in high relief, and standing on twelve 
oxen. Long inscriptions accompany the scenes. The 


group of the Baptism of Christ is of extraonlinary 
beauty. Three *^ ministering angels " obedient, solicitous, 
rejoicing, express the most perfect angelic naturalism. 
John, preaching to the people to bring forth the fruit of 
repentance, is of equal beauty. The listening group of 
" publicans," with a Roman soldier, is exquisite. I must 
confess that I do not understand the lineage of the style 
of sculpture of this outstanding work. It is so free, and 
there is no touch of archaism. As bronze-casting it 
doubtless derives from the Grerman schools, and Byzantine 
influence is evident in the composition. 

In the following short account of French sculpture I 
have, instead of trying to describe indescribable beauties, 
endeavoured to give a synopsis of the sequence of the 
chief groups and a brief summary of the subjects treated. 

In France a great school of sculpture had been 
developed in the royal domain by the middle of the 
twelfth century. The array of figures at the royal doors of 
Chartres are the best known examples ; but two lovely figures 
of a king and queen from Corbeil are even more perfect. 

The question of the relationship of the master of the 
west portals of Chartres to the school which worked at 
Aries was raised by Voge, but Lasteyrie seems to have 
shown conclusively that the Chartres group did not 
derive from Aries. At St. Gilles some of the earliest 
of these southern sculptures go back to near 1 150 and the 
sculptor Brunus has signed some of the figures. The 
sculptures at Aries, however, were not wrought till about 
1180-90. At the same time it does seem to me that the 
Southern school may have had an independent origin. 


The figures of the secui-ely dated Gloria doors of St. Jamee 
of Conipostella(ii88) are very different in their sentiment 
of dramatic action to the placid figures of Corbeil and 
Chartres; moreover, they are quite as advanced as any 

Fig. 93- Tomb of Louis, eldest son of Saint Louis, at St. Denis, c. ia6o. 

other works of the same date. The scheme, however* is 
evidently derived from Cheui^res. 

The west portal at Chartres belongs to the period 
1150-75, but a door at St. Denis, entirely similar in style, 
went back to 1142. Several other portals exist which 
follow the same tjrpe ; one of these at Le Mans Cathedral, 
which was set up sometime before 11 86 (probably c. 1170), 
is of special intercst to us, as it is probably the prototype 


of tlie west door of Rochester, which, in any case, is an 
oflshoot of this school. 

The sculptures on the triple portal of Chartres comprise 
some 720 figures, large and small. In the middle tym- 
panum is Christ in Majesty, surrounded by the symbols of 
the Evangelists, with the Apostles below. Around the 
arch are angels and the twenty-four elders. The tym- 
panum of the right-hand door is devoted to the life and 
glorification of the Virgin, the arch sculptures represent 
the seven liberal arts. The tympanum of the north door 
has the Ascension for its subject, and the sculptures of the 
arch are the zodiac and the labours of the months. The 
twenty-four great statues standing against the pillars of 
the doors are the ancestors of the Virgin, as has been 
recently shown by Voge and Male. Here and there are 
traces that the sculptures were formerly covered with 
bright colour and gold. (Plate 41.) 

At Reims there is a small portal which has been 
preserved in the north transept, which is an exquisite 
transition work, and still richly coloured. 

The tympanum of St. Anne^s door, one of the three 
western doors of Notre Dame, Paris, that to the south, 
was also preserved from the antecedent building. This 
has such close affinity with one of the Chartres door-heads 
that it is thought it must be either the work of the same 
master or of a pupil ; it was wrought about 1185. The 
two figures of a bishop and a king kneeling before the 
Virgin are Maurice de Sully, the bishop, and Louis VII 
There are fragments of the jamb statues at the Cluny 


The west porUl at Senlis is probably the best example 

Figs. 94 and 95. Effigies called Childebert I. (wrought c. IT50) and Clovis II. 
(Xlllth Century) from tombs at St. Denis. 

of earliest Gothic sculpture. In much it follows the royal 
doors of Chartres, but it is a whole step in advance. In 


the tympanum is a strikingly beautiful and solemn Coro- 
nation of the Virgin, her Death, and Assumption. The 
column-figures are typical characters — under the old and 
new laws — Abraham with Isaac, Moses with the pillar 
which bore the brazen serpent, Simeon with Christ in his 
arms, St. John Baptist, and others. The heads have been 
very badly restored, but types so similar are found at 
Chartres and Reims that we can only suppose that they 
were copied, with slight differences, one from the other. 
This work seems to date about 1190. Considerable 
vestiges of colour still remain. These sculptures, €ux;ording 
to E. Male, follow the scheme of Isidorus by which Adam, 
Abel, Noah, &c,, were all in certain aspects types of Christ. 
The next step seems to have been made in the triple 
porches at Laon. Here the column-figures, the old ones 
having been destroyed at the Revolution, are now entirely 
modem. The ancient central tympanum represents the 
Virgin^s Coronation; around the arch is a fine stem of 
Jesse. The north porch has in the tympanum scenes from 
the life of the Virgin ; the arch sculptures are of types of 
the Virgin, which, as M. Emile Male has shown, follow 
those given in a sermon of Honorius of Autun; the Virtues 
and Vices, &c. The south door represents Christ in Judg- 
ment; in the arch-orders are angels carrying souls to 
glory, and the wise and foolish virgins. Above, around 
one of the windows, is one of the finest sets of the seven 
liberal arts. A good deal of colour remains, and the 
subjects had Mrritten titles. The little north door has 
some pretty reliefs, which, I believe, have not been iden- 
tified. Comparison with the north door at Reims shows 
that the subject was the Meu*tyrdom of St. Nicaise. 


Amongst some fragments preserved in the chapel of the 
bishop^s palace is a queen'^s head (Sheba ?) of the greatest 
beauty ; except for some marks of violence, the surface is 
in good condition, and still shows faint traces of paint. 

There are two charming pairs of figures on the west 
front of St. Martinis, Laon, where angels with candle- 
sticks guide bishop-saints to heaven. 

In referring to these last three I have stepped aside 
from chronological order, to which I will now return. 

At Cheu*tres, beside the western portals, which belong 
to an earlier building, there are vast triple porches to both 
the transepts, each containing a crowd of statues. The 
design of the porches, and several of the details, show 
close affinity with the work at Laon. The whole north porch 
is dedicated to the Virgin. On the central door-post is 
St. Anne with the Virgin in her arms ; in the tympanum is 
the Coronation of the Vii'gin, and in the arch are anoestora 
of the royal line. The large free-standing figures are Old 
Testament types of Christ. Abraham, Moses and Samuel 
are almost exactly like those at Senlis ; the Story of the 
Creation is figured on the outer arch. In the tympanum 
of the left-hand bay is the Nativity. In the arches are 
the Virtues and other subjects, and in the exterior arch 
heavenly Beatitudes. Two of the exterior statues against 
the pillars were, before 1793, impersonations of the Church 
and the Synagogue. The jamb statues are groups of the 
Annunciation and Visitation. (Plate 42.) Above the right- 
hand door is Solomon judging between the two women. In 
the arch are angels carrying sun, moon, and crowns, also 
types of the Virgin in the stories of Gideon, Esther, Judith, 



face p. 222 


Tobit, and others. Around the exterior arch are the signs 
of the zodiac and labours of the months. Amongst the 
standing figures here are a beautiful pair of the Queen of 
Sheba and Solomon. On the outer pillars are local saints. 

In the three porches of the south transept the central 
bay contains Christ in Judgment above the door, and 
below are statues of the Apostles. In the arch are the 
nine orders of angels. In the left-hand porch the tym- 
panum is given to the first martyr, and the standing 
figures are of martyrs — Saints Vincent, Laurence, and 
Stephen, deacons; Saints Greorge and Theodore, warriors; 
St. Clement, Pope. (Plate 43.) The right*hand bay is 
assigned to confessors. The tympanum is given to 
St. Nicholas and St. Martin, and below are statues of the 
same saints, and of the doctors Jerome and Gregory. 

For the last word on the attribution of these statues, 
and the best account of Cathedral Iconography generally, 
I must refer to M. Emile Male^s "L'Art Religieux,^ 1902. 
It must suflice to say that the whole assemblage is incom- 
parable in magnitude and in beauty, save only with Reims. 
Certain statues of the porches have been named after 
historical personages — the King of France, Richard Coeur 
de Lion, the Count of Boulogne and Countess Matilda, &c. 
Male points out that the reliefs under the so-called Philip 
Augustus and Richard treat of Saul and David. Under 
the Count of Boulogne is a figure inscribed '^ Jesse. "" 
Another group of statues represents Eli and Samuel with 
Samuel's father and mother, the names of whom appear 
on the explanatory reliefs. As Male has shown there was 
nothing of caprice in the iconographical schemes of the 
Cathedrals, they were evidently prepared by the most 


learned theologians of the day. It is quite clear also that 

Figs. 96 and 97. Effigies called Louis III. and Carloman from tombs 
at St. Denis (Xlllth Century). 

the French sculptors studied such antique statues as came 
under their observation. The Chartres sculptures probably 


DOORS OF SOUTH HjRCH s,-t- * "-^> ^ AN^ .^N . *^M- 

jr.OktiE. ETC. 

Fz^'i t. 224 


date from about 12 10 (in 1204 Chartres acquired the head 
of St. Anne, who appears on the trumeau of the north 
porch). One plan seems to have been adhered to from 
the first, but development may be seen in the workman- 
ship. Among the most mature of the statues are the local 
saints of the north porch, and Saints Greorge and Theodore 
of the south. There are many traces of colour. 

Some reliefs from the life of the Vir^n preserved in the 
crypt, which came from the destroyed pulpitum, are of the 
highest order. The Nativity, and the Three Kings sleep- 
ing, should on no account be missed. 

In quality the sculptures of the west portals of Notre 

Dame, Paris {c. 1220), are unsurpassable, but they were 

much injured at the Revolution. Christ in Judgment 

filled the central door. The great broken lintel figuring 

the Resurrection (fragments are in the Cluny) was superb 

in composition and execution, and on the basement is a 

very interesting series of Virtues and Vices. The Virgin^s, 

or north door, is more perfect and very lovely. The high 

tympanum is divided into three bands ; below are three 

prophets and three kings of Judah: next comes the 

Assumption of the Virgin, and above, her Coronation. 

The smaller subjects on the jambs and basement are 

marvellously vivid inventions of the signs of the zodiac, 

and labours of the year. Notice especially the May, a 

young man witH a bunch of roses and a spotted thrush ; 

and June, a mower sharpening his scythe. There are also 

two reliefs of Sea and Land, the latter a stately seated 

woman holding types of vegetation in her hands. Tracea 

of painting may still be discerned. The doors of th^ 


south transept are also of great beauty. The Virgin^s 
door in the west front is so like one of the Amiens doors that 
it is certain that one is copied firom the other. Across the 
fronts of both these cathedrals are galleries of niches 
containing colossal figures of kings — ^at Paris of twenty- 
eight (renewed)y and at Amiens of twenty-two. They 
have been known as kings of France ; but Didron, Viollet 
le Due, and recently £. M&le, have argued that they are 
the royal ancestors of the Virgin. 

The lower storey of the west front of Amiens is taken 
up by three deeply recessed portals, only divided by the 
bases of the buttresses. Fifty-two statues of heroic size 
standing above the basement form a continuous band right 
across tiie front and going into the deep recesses of the 
porches. The mid-post of the central door supports a 
statue of Christ Blessing ; in a niche below is a king who 
used to be called David, but is now supposed to be 
Solomon. Above, in the tympanum, is Christ come to 
Judgment : the Virgin and St. John plead on either hand, 
and, beyond, two angels bear the cross and spear ; below is 
the Separation of the Blessed and the Lost. The arches are 
filled with a host of angels and saints and ancestors. 
The door-posts are sculptured with five wise and five foolish 
virgins, who stand on one side over a fig-tree in which 
birds build their nests, and on the other over a withered 
tree half severed by an axe. The basement of the deep 
slanting jambs bears a number of quatrefoils containing 
beautiful versions of the Virtues and Vices; the free 
statues above are the twelve Apostles. Two next the 
outer angles on each side are the four major prophets, and 



Fig. 98. Effigy of Phillipe 111. at 
St. Denis, c. 1307. 

Fig. 99. Effigy of Jean II. at 
St. Denis, c. 1364- 


twelve other prophets occupy the faces of the four but- 
tresses. On tiie mid-post of the south door stands a very 
noble figure of the Virgin over some reliefs of the Fall of 
Man ; above her head is the Ark of the Covenant. On 
either side of the Ark, on the lowest band of the 
tympanum, are three seated prophets ; this is especially like 
Paris. On the sloping sides of this porch the statues refer 
to the life of the Virgin — ^the Annunciation, the Visi- 
tation, and the Presentation, the Three Magi and Herod, 
also Solomon, and the Queen of Sheba. The identifi- 
cations are certain in every case, as the quatrefoil reliefs 
refer to the figures beneath which they are sculptured ; 
thus, beneath Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, Solomon 
is shown seated on the lion-throne and welcoming the 
queen. In the tympanum of this door are figured the 
Burial, Assumption, and Coronation of the Virgin. The 
north door is devoted to the local saints. The quatrefoils 
here contain the signs of the zodiac and the labours of 
the months — a magnificent set. Under the prophets the 
reliefs are of their typical prophecies, which are rendered 
with great imagination. Notice the Desolate City inhabited 
by unclean beasts, the Heavens stayed from dew,and,indeed, 
all of them. High up on the south side of the south-west 
tx>wer is a colossal angel standing over a sun-dial, which may 
be compared with dial-bearing angels at Laon and Chartres. 
Tlie sculptures of the south transept door are about twenty 
years later than those of the west porch, which were 
wrought soon after 1220. (Plates 44-45 and 53-55.) 

Of all sculptured fironts, that of Reims is the triumphant 
consummation in scale, perfection of execution, and fascinsk-* 



Pace f. 228 


tion. As to design, it certainly follows that of Amiens. It 
is held that a concourse of masters from the various French 
schools gathered here, and the work seems to be the out- 
come of a furnace of intense creative energy. Here again 
three vast gabled porches stretch across the front. The 
tympana over the doors are pierced with rose windows, 
and the sculptures of the Coronation of the Virgin, and 
the rest, which usually fill them, are thrust up into the 
gables above, where they ai-e surrounded and canopied by 
a marvel of tabernacle work. SmalL reliefs fill narrow 
flanking gables at the extreme ends of the front ; and it 
looks as if, as has been suggested, these had been prepared 
for the tympana and were pushed aside by a change of 
plan in favour of piercing them with windows. On the 
mid-post of the centre porch are the Virgin and Child, 
probably the most perfect mean between the earlier and 
later Virgins at Amiens. Along the deep slanting sides of 
the porch stand statues eight or nine feet high setting 
forth the story of the Virgin''s life. To the right two 
pairs show the Annunciation and the Visitation; in the 
latter the figures are strikingly Greek in character. 
Opposite these is the Presentation in the Temple, Mary 
with the Child, Simeon, Anna, and Joseph (Plates 46-49). 
The Virgin in this and in the Annunciation resembles 
those at Amiens and Chartres. At the outer angles 
are Samuel and Saul, whom he anointed king^ in reference 
to the use of this cathedral for coronations. Beyond 
these, again, on the face of the buttresses, are particularly 
romantic statues of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, who 
evidently find their place here, as at Amiens and Chartres, 
on accoimt of the saying of Christ : ^^ The Queen of the 


South • . • came from the ends of the earth to hear the 
wisdom of Solomon ; and, behold, a greater than Solomon 
is here.^ The north porch is devoted to local saints. 
Here the martyred Nicaise, with an advance on Amiens, 
carries only the crown of his head, instead of the whole 
head, as do the local martyrs there. The Bishop^s face 
shows a perfect characterisation of patient suffering ; he 
is led forward by two smiling angels. 

It is the south door that has the series of types of 
Christ — ^Moses, Samuel, and others — which have before 
been spoken of as like those of Senlis and Chartres. The 
doorways of the north transept are also fully sculptured, 
the middle one with the stories of Saints Nicaise and 
Remi, and the left-hand one with a noble Last Judgment, 
treated as at Amiens. In the archivolt are small figures 
of the wise and foolish Virgins. Above the former is a 
gate with open doors : above the latter the doors are closed. 

The west front of Bourges has five great sculptured 
doorways, of which the reliefs rank amongst the finest, but 
most of the standing figures have been destroyed. Above 
the central door is Christ in Judgment, beneath whom is 
a delightful smiling Michael weighing souls, and proces- 
sions of the Blest and Lost The former seem to be led by 
St. Louis and St. Francis ; the personages in this group 
are smiling with almost excessive evidence of felicity. It 
seems to have been Bourges from which German sculptors 
took this trait which they further exaggerated. The 
reliefs in the spandrils of the wall-arcade below are marvels 
of design and cutting. In one are Adam and Eve amongst 
the fruit-trees of Paradise ; in another a fawning dragon- 



Faceup. 230 


serpent licks his lips before Eve ; and another shows the 
Deluge drowning mankind. Ruskin picked out these as 
the finest spandril reliefs he knew. In the Louvre are 
fragments from the pulpitum, being subjects frt>m the life 
of Christ in a particularly noble style of high relief. 

The west portals of Auxerre and Sens must also be 
counted among the great examples of sculpture ; also the 
north-west door and the transept doors at Rouen. In 
the last are scores of little quatrefoil panels filled with 
stories from the Creation onwards (Plates 50-51). 

A treatise by Dr. Franck-Oberaspach has lately shown 
that the exquisite sculptures of the Church and Synagogue 
on the south transept of Strasbourg must be considered as 
the work of a master who had worked on the porches of 
Chartres. The wonderful ** Angel pillar,^ or rather Judg- 
ment pillar, in the same cathedral seems to be by the same 
handy and is plainly a development of the statue-bearing 
pillars of the north porch of Chartres. There are three 
tiers of figures, being the four Evangelists, four angels 
calling to judgment, and Christ accompanied by three 
angels bearing instruments of the Passion (Plate 52). 

Of the two figures which symbolise the strife between 
the New Law and the Old, the Church is radiant and 
with a touch of scorn ; the Synagogue, with eyes bandaged, 
droops her head till the crown falls and the staff she leans 
on breaks like a reed. Of later date, and of the German 
school, are the sculptures of the western portal ; but two 
features must be referred to. Filling the gable over the 
central door is a finely designed Solomon on his throne of 
seven steps with as many pairs of lions. The twelve 
statues at one of the doors figure the story of the wise 


and foolish Virgins. On one side the wise are led by 
Christ, the Holy Wisdom, and on the other the foolish 
are attracted by Folly, a fair^seeming youth with a fine 
mantle in front, but naked behind and his back covered 
with toads and serpents. The same artist may have done 
a similar series at Freiburg, where there is also an inte- 
resting set of isolated statues of the seven Liberal Arts all 
prettily coloured. 

I have noted that most of the sculptured stories of 
cathedral fronts still show many traces of the colour and 
gold with which they were once illuminated. The best 
preserved of these painted statues in place are probably 
those in the south porch of Lausanne Cathedral, which 
have their garments diapered and bordered with dainty 
patterns. At Reims, one or more of the figures show 
a similar treatment, and the shafts between them have 
traces of chevron patterns. A visitor to Paris in the time 
of Charles VTII. noted that the west front of Notre Dame 
was ornamented with gold and painted with divers colours. 
The Christ of the central door and the Virgin above in the 
middle of the front were especially splendid, but all the 
sculptures were decorated. Fig. 102 may help us to realise 
this. Piecing together the fi'agmentaiy evidence makes it 
clear that all exterior sculpture was intended to be painted 
as part of the traditional finish and to protect the stone 
from decay. It is to this skin of paint that we owe the 
preservation of so many of these works, which in most 
cases have suffered little or nothing from the weather, but 
only from violence. 

The method of treating a great scheme of sculpture. 




Face p, 232 




Face p. 232 


like a west front, was to wash the whole with ochre ; to 

Fig. 100. Effigy ot Robert 
d*Aitob at St Denis, c. 1317. 

Fig. loi. Effigy of Marguerite 
d'Artois, St. Denis, c, 13x1. 

paint certain niches and hoUows red, green, and blue; to 


fully decorate the images tod write inscriptions on the 
scrolls they bore ; and then to touch certain details with 
gold. The finished front was fair and sparkling exactly like 
a colossal painted ivory triptych. From the front the 
colour and gold spread to the lead roof, the crest was gilt, 
and at times th^ slopes were diapered with a big pattern. 
The fl^he would be fully decorated, and at Chfilons the 
west spires had the leadwork covered with figures and 
canopies painted much in the style of colossal enamel work. 
The effigies of French tombs are fully as fine as the ex* 
terior sculptures. The effigy of Louis, son of St. Louis, at 
St. Denis, is beautiful beyond all praise. Smiling, his hands 
are energetically pressed together, as if he. saw a vision 
(Fig. 93). Our Henry III., who attended the funeral of 
the prince, appears amongst the mourners on the tomb. 
The figures of a youthful knight, Robert d'^Artois, 13 17 
(Fig. 100), and Phili[^ III. (Fig. 98), both in the same 
church, are equally noteworthy. The Robert d^Artois was 
the work of Jeanh Pqnny bourgeois de Paris et tombitr. A 
still more famous master was Andr^ Beauneveu, imager to 
Charles V., who wrought the king^s tomb and those of 
Jean II. (Fig. 99) and Philippe de Valois. I give after 
the AnnaJes Archasologiques Figs. 93-101, from the tomb 
effigies of St. Denis. In Fig. 94, which is a memorial 
effigy wrought about 11 50, we have in the cast of the 
drapeiy an evident reminiscence of Byzantine design. The 
same tradition appears in the effigy of our Henry II. at 
Fontevrault. Figs. 95, 96, 97 are also ideal memorial 
effigies ; the Figs. 98, 99 of Philippe III. and Jean II. 
were evidently portraits ; the former was wrought in 1307 
by Jean d^ Arras and Pierre de Chelles. 



Face p, 234 


It is interesting that the names of several of the Gk)thic 
sculptors have been preserved. Robert de Launay, imager 
of Paris, who was killed at the battle of Poitiers, wrought 
for the chapel of S. Jacques aux Pdlerins, about 1320, large 
statues of Christ, Apostles, and Angels. The 
Apostles were placed against the twelve pillars 
of the chapel, which being destroyed in 1808, 
five of the statues found a resting-place in the 
Climy Museum. Jean le Bouteiller, another 
Paris image-maker, made the beautiful Biblical 
stories of the choir enclosure of Notre Dame, 
completed in 135 1. 

Still another famous sculptor was Jean de 
Cambrai, the sculptor of wonderful images on 
the tomb of the Duke of Berry, once at Bourges, Painting^'a 
and now destroyed, but of which beautiful ^^**"®' ^"*" 
drawings made by Holbein have been preserved. * ^^ 
At Dijon is a group of sculptures by Claux Sluter and his 
nephew. These comprise the celebrated Well of Moses 
and the Tombs of Philippe le Hardi and of Jean Sans Peur.* 

It appears from the names of several of the great 
artists working in France from the middle of the 
fourteenth century, and from the character of the work 
wrought at this time that the leading influence was 
then Flemish i-ather than French. The most famous 
artists of the time bore such names as P^pin de Huy, 
Andr^ Beauneveu of Valenciennes, Claux Sluter, Jean de 
Cambi-ai, Hennequin de Liege, &c. fo England, in 1367, 
^hen Edward III. erected a tomb to his wife in 
• see S. Lami's important •. Diet. Sculpt. Fran^ais." 1898. 


Westminster Abbey it was ordered from one ** Hawkin de 
Liege of France,'' doubtless the last named, and is of the 
fashionable Flemish style. In painting the climax of this 

Fig. 103. Daughters of Sion, from stained glass at Orbais 
(Xlllth Century). 

school was reached by the great world-artist Jan Van 
Eyck, of Bniges, who himself served the French king. 

In France a good deal of critical attention has been 
given to the national painters of an early date. Several 
important books have been devoted to them, and it is 
there fully understood that these painters are of as much 






importance to the history of French art as a Giotto and 
other early masters aie to that of Italy. 

From the tenth or eleventh century, vestiges of wall- 

FiG. 104. Moses, from stained glass at Orbais (Xlllth Century). 

paintings still exist, such as fine Majesties and Virgins in 
apses, rows of prophets, Bible histories, &c., mostly large in 
scale, hieratic in treatment, and presented in fair, frank 
colours, and in a style flowing from Byzantine sources. 
Poitiers and its neighbourhood is the best district in which 
to study early French wall painting. St. Savin, which 



may be seen in an excursion firom Poitiers, is a splendid 
Romanesque abbey church, which is almost entirely 
covered with paintings, as also is the circular chapel of 

St. Jean de Liget in the 
forest of Loches: 

At the end of the thir- 
teenth century, Master 
Etienne d^Auxerre was in 
the service of Philippe le 
Bel. In 1308, Philippus 
Rizuti of Rome was Pictor 
Regis. He, his son, and 
another, ** three painters 
of Rome,^ are mentioned 
as late as 1317. ^^He is 
probably the same as the 
Philippus Rusutus who, 
at the beginning of the 
fourteenth century,signed 
one of the mosaics of the 
facade of S. M. Maggiore, 
Rome.*" One of the most important painters of this 
time was Master Evrard of Orleans, who worked in the 
royal palaces up to the middle of the fourteenth century ; 
he, it is said, was also a sculptor and an architect. 

Figs. 103 and 104 from stained glass may suggest in 
some degree the thirteenth-century style of drawing and 
composition. Fig. 105 is a sketch by Villars de Honne- 

About 1350 Jean Coste painted a palace chapel for 
Jean II. ** in fine oil-colours ; the field of fine-patterned 

Fig. Z05. A study by V. de Honnecourt 





Face p. 238 


gold and the vestments of Our Lady in fine azure."^ 
Of this King John, taken prisoner at Poitiers by the 

Fig. 106. Portrait from incised grave-slab at Ch&lons-surMarnc. 

Black Prince in 1356, there remains a portrait on a gilt 
ground raised in patterns, which may be the work o£ 
Coste, or more probably of Gerard d'Orl^ans. In 1368-80^ 
Jean de Bruges was Pictor Regis to Charles V. An 














inventory of 1399 notes a painting in four leaves having 
the portraits of Charles V., Jean his father, the Emperor 
his uncle, and the King of England, Edward III. This 
precious picture, containing a portrait of Edward III., is 
unfortunately lost. 

Another important master was Jean d^Orl^ans (1361- 
1408), Pictor Regis. But the most famous master 
of the fourteenth century was Charles V.'^s painter, 
^^Nostre aime Andrieu Beauneveu, nostre ymager,"^ who 
is mentioned by Froissart as ^^ Maistre de ses ceuvres de 
taille et de paintre *" to the Duke of Berry. He has already 
been spoken of as a sculptor. That accurate portraiture 
was well understood at this time we may gather, if it 
needs proof, from the account that when Charles VI. was 
about to marry (1385), painters were sent abroad to bring 
him portraits of marriageable princesses. Isabella of 
Bavaria was approved as beOej Jeune et genk. Figs. 106, 
107 are from engraved tomb slabs of a still earlier time 
(c. 1300), and can hardly be other than portraits. They 
come from the cathedral of Chalons-sur-Mame, the floor 
of which seems to have been almost entirely covered by 
such graves.* 

In 1425, Jan Van Eyck entered the service of Philippe 
le Bon. Of the native artists painting in the middle of 
the fifteenth century, the most famous is Jean Fouquet of 

Little remains to us of the heyday of art from 1250 
to 1350 on the walls and vaults of the cathedrals. One 
of the most interesting series of paintings was only 

* On some supposed portrait sculptures of St. Louis and other royal 
persons, see Gam. dts B$aux Arts, 1903. p. 177. 


recently discovered on a cupola at Cahors, which was 
decorated, about 1300, with colossal prophets, fifteen feet 
high, standing in tabernacles, and painted on a bright red 
ground in an egg medium. The painted books of the great 
time, however, are as perfect as when first the azure was 
laid and the gold was burnished. It is from these we 
may best gain an idea of the painted interiors of the 
period when France led the w^y in art, in painting no 
less than in sculpture and building. Window-glass, 
tapestry and wall-decoration were but oflshoots of that 
art which Dante says ^^ in Paris is called illuminating.'" 

Since this short note on French painting, in which I 
followed in the main the volumes of Gr^is Didot and Laflilee 
and of Paul Mantz, has been in type, a collection of 
^'Primitifs^ which has been gathered together at the 
Louvre has excited much interest This exhibition 
could, of course, only deal with movables, and the earliest 
work shown is the portrait of Jean II., which is assigned 
to Gerard d'Orldans, who, it is thought, painted it in 
England (c. 1359)9 when he shared the captivity of the 
king, and that it formed part of the four-fold picture 
of royal portraits mentioned above. In the catalogue 
of this collection a claim is advanced that the famous 
Wilton diptych is a French work painted at Calais 
on the occasion of the marriage of Richard II. with 
Isabella of France in 1396. This is not at all so certain. 
It has always been held that this picture is considerably 
earlier than the date of this marriage, and there is probably 
more work in England to which it can be likened than 
there is in France; for instance, the magnificent West- 
minster portrait of Richard II. known to have been painted 



Face p. 242 


in, or before, 1396, for a place in the stalls of the Abbey 
Chuix^« In this superb work, surely the finest fourteenth- 
century portrait in £iux)pe both for dignity of design 
and fine colour, the background is patterned over with 
raised gilt gesso, as is the Wilton diptych. In the almost 
unknown paintings of the Majesty and the Coronation 
of the Virgin on tiie tester of Richaxd'^s tomb, also painted 
in or before 1396, we have a similar treatment, which was 
in use in England at latest from the time when, in 1300, 
Walter of Durham, Edward I/s master painter, decorated 
the Coronation chair. Again, we are far from knowing all 
tke able painters who worked for the luxury-loving King 
Richard II. A chance entry in the St- Paul's documents 
shows that in 1398 Herebrecht of Cologne, citizen and 
painter of London, was engaged in painting a splendid 
picture of St. Paul surroimded by a tabernacle for the 
High Altar of the Cathedral. I am not so much expressing 
doubt as to the Wilton picture being by a French master, 
but to the assumption that it was painted in France on the 
occasion suggested. The exquisite Westminster retable 
(c. 1260-70) was, I have no doubt, painted in Paris and 
sent to Henry III. as a gift from St. Ix>uis, the fleur-de-lys 
and castles of the decoration suggest this, so also do the 
inlays of blue glass patterned over with gold, a method of 
decoration extensively used in the Ste. Chapelle. Mr. S. C. 
Cockerell has pointed out to me that a curious pattern on 
the painting, resembling somewhat a Cufic inscription, is a 
favourite decoration on books painted for St. Louis. 



In France much attention has been devoted to the study 
of the mediffival masters of masonry, the memory of 
whom has nowhere been so completely lost ns here in 
England. Durand, writing of how Amiens Cathedral mus 
built (6. Durand, " Cath^cbale d' Amiens,^' 1901)* says that 
that which we understand by architect did not eitist iB 
the Middle Ages — ^neither the name nor the thing. The 
plans were drawn by the master mason if the work was of 
stone, by the master carpenter if of wood. The execu- 
tion of the work was confided to a master ma^on or a 
master carpenter. 

Thevet, in 1584, gives the life of one such master 
mason in his collection of illustrious Frenchmen. 

Felibien also collected much information. One of the 
first works in France which the latter assigns to definite 
masters was the church of St. Lucien at Beauv ais, rebuilt 
about 1078 " by two workmen, Wormbold and Odon, who 
are only mentioned as cementarii, for the word ^ architecrt ' 
was then little used, and they gave the name of *■ mason ^ to 
those who made profession of the art of building/' In 18S7 
appeared C. Baucb^r^ ^* Biographical Dictionai-y of French 




Face p. 



Architects,^ which is so thorough that it would be vain 
to attempt to make extracts from it. In it we can 
follow in many cases the succession of masters at several 
cathedrals over the space of centuries. In the case 
of TroyeSy particulars as to some seventy workers are 
given. I shall only here touch on a few leading cases, 
in the main gathered from sources published since 
Bauchal wrote. 

An ancient inscription, connected with a labyrinth, 
inlaid in the floor of Amiens Cathedral, set forth that 
Master Robert of Luzarches, master of the work, began 
it in 1220. This labyrinth was an octagon filling the 
floor of two bays of the nave. At the centre was inlaid 
a cross of bronze, and also incised effigies of Evrard, the 
bishop who b^an the work, and of three masons who 
built it. This central slab was preserved when the laby- 
rinth was destroyed in 1825, and a copy of the whole 
composition has recently been laid in the place it once 
occupied. Robert of Luzarches was followed by Master 
Thomas de Cormont, who was succeeded by his son, 
Master Regnault, who, as the inscription read, *^ put the 
writing^ in the year 1288. Over the south transept door 
is the remnant of a still earlier inscription in large letters 
{c. 1240) stating that the first stone was laid in 1220, and 
there the name of Robert again appears. A deed of 
1260 mentions Master Renaud, cementarius, master of the 
fabric. The third master was, therefore, in charge from 
before 1260 to after 1288, and to him must be attributed 
the higher parts of the choir. The inscription of 1288 
marks the date of the laying down of the marble floor of 
the nave, necessarily one of the last works. When I first 

Fio. 108. Hugh Libergiers, Master mason of Reims (lived e. 1190-1263). 



Face p. 2^6 


saw Amiens much of the original pavement was still in 
place ; now all has been renewed. 

One of the most perfect Gothic churches in France, of 
the great period, was S. Nicaise at Reims, destroyed a 
century ago, but of which good illustrations remain to us. 
It was b^un in 1229 at the west end; a nearly contem- 
porary chronicle of the Abbey of S. Nicaise says that 
^* Hugo Libergiers, pronaon eoclesiae, perfecit. Robert de 
Coucy, caput ecclesise, construxit.^ The latter also, we are 
told, made the chapels of the choir and the high vault of 
the cross. Mastier Hugh died in 1263, and was buried just 
within the entrance. In Reims Cathedral the grave-slab 
of this master mason is still preserved. The engraved 
lines of the finely drawn figure are filled with lead. He 
holds in his hands a model of the church and his measuring- 
rod, while on the field are depicted squai*e and calipers. 
Around the border is inscribed : 


In the cloister of S. Denis, Reims, F^libien noted the 
gravestone of Robert de Coucy, " Maistre de Notre Dame 
et de S. Nicaise^ qui trSpassa en Van 1311.^ We have thus 
a complete record of the two masters who built this church. 

Of the masters of Reims Cathedral we have again full 
accounts. In its nave was also a labyrinth the position of 
which can still be seen in the disturbed paving, and a ' 
written account of the figures and inscriptions which it 
contained has been preserved. At the middle was a figure 
probably of the Archbishop by whom the work was begun. 
At the four comers were four figui^s of master masons. 


Jehan le Loup, master of the works for sixteen years, who 
commenced the portals; Gauchier de Reims, master for 
eighteen years, who wrought the vaults and arches, and 
also the portals; Bernard de Soissons, who made five 
vaults, worked on the great rose (^^ et ouvra d TO ""), and 
was master during thirty-five years ; and Jehan d^Orbais, 
master of the works. The church was b^un in 121 1, and 
the choir was taken possession of in 1241. M. Demaison, in 
a recent criticism of the data, has arrived at the result that 
Jehan d^Orbais began the chevet (^^ coif ^^) and died about 
1 23 1, and Jehan le Loup completed it (from 1 231 to 1247) 
and built the north portals. Gauchier followed 1 247— 1 255, 
and was succeeded by Bernard till 1290, during which time 
he carried on the nave and raised the west front as far as 
to include the rose, the technical name for which, as known 
by other documents, was *^ TO.^^ It will be seen that the 
names follow in the same order as that given in the MS. 
description, only beginning with the last name in following 
the angles of a square. 

Wlt^ile Reims was in progress it was visited (about 1225, 
by Villars de Honnecourt, a master probably of Cambnu) 
who has left an interesting MS. book full of notes and 
drawings, preserved in Paris. It is supposed that Villars 
built the church of Vaucelles about 1230, that he was then 
called to Hungar}', and on his return built the choir of 
St. Quentin Cathedral, consecrated 1257. His vellum 
sketch-book gives us a remarkable view of the range of his 
interests. He draws the *^ counterfeit ^ of a lion from life, 
makes many studies for sculptm'e, notes geometrical and 
mechanical suggestions such as how to make an angel bow 
at the Holy Name, and gives us a plan of a double-aisled 


apse, which he says was " found ^ in the course of a dis- 
cussion with Pieri-e de Corbie. 

From the notes which accompany the drawings it appears 

TAis is apian 9fth€ apse of *' Madame Saint Mary** 
Fig. Z09. Drawing by Villars de Honnecourt of apse of Cambrai Cathedral. 

probable that the book was prepared to be handed on 
either to descendants, or to his Guild, or for " publication.*^ 
The style of the notes is very similar to that of the recipes 
of the monk Theophilus. The directions begin : ** If you 
desire to make*" — "I will tell you how'' — ** When I was 
in Hungary,^ &c. The volume opens, " Wilars de Honecort 


salutes you, and implores all who labour at the different 
kinds of works contained in this book, to pray for his soul 
and hold him in remembrance/^ Amongst his drawings 
from buildings we have the north-west tower of Laon — ** I 
have been in many countries, but in no place have I seen a 
tower equal to that of Laon'' — the plan of the chevet 
(del chavec) of Cambrai Cathedral, *^ as it is now rising 
from the ground," the eastern ends of Meaux Cathedral 
and of the abbey church of Vaucelles (the last dedicated in 
1235 and now destroyed), the rose windows at Lausanne 
and Chartres, the pavement labyrinth in the latter 
cathedral, and many details of Reims. (Figs. 89, 105, 109.) 

At Paris the present cathedml was rebuilt from 1 163 
to 1235. It was hardly finished before it was injured bv 
fire, and large additional works had to be undertaken, 
including the transept gables and the outer wall of the 
chevet. An important inscription on the lower part of 
the south transept shows that this was the work of Master 
Jean de Chelles, mason, a.d. 1257. There is much fine 
sculpture about the door here, which we must suppose was 
the work of this mason. A deed of sale dated 1265, 
shows that Jean de Chelles was followed by the celebrated 
Pien-e de Montereau, who is described as hUhomos maguter 
fabriccK ecclesicB B,M. Paris. 

In 1307 a Pierre de Chelles of Paris, probably a son of 
the former, was the king's mason and master of the works 
at Notre Dame. In the same year he agreed to make the 
tomb of Philippe III. 

An inscription on the sculptured screen which enclosed 
the choir of Notre Dame told that it was commenced by 


Master Jean Ravy, masson^ of Noire Dame for twenty-six 
years, and was completed by his nephew, Jean le BouteiUer, 
135 1. The Sainte Chapdie (begun 1240 and dedicated 
1248), the lovely work of St. Louis, so admired by our 
own Henry IIL that a contemporary poem says he would 
have liked to have carried it oiF in a cart, is always said to 
have been built by Pierre de Montereau (or more properly 
Montreuil) ; but of this there is no proof, nor is there any 
proof of his having directed the works at the Refectory of 
St. Martin des Champs. He was undoubtedly the master 
mason of the Lady Chapel at St. Germain des Pr^s, and it 
has lately been discovered that he was also master of the 
works at St Denis, of which, in a document of 1247, he is 
described as the ^^cementarius.^ Large reconstructions at 
St Denis were undertaken in 1231. Pierre, this "doctor 
of masons ** (" Doctor Lathomorum "'),* as he was called on 
his tombstone, which F^libien saw at St Germain des Pr^, 
was bom about 121 2, at Montreuil, near Vincennes, and 
died in 1266. The grave of another of St. Louis^ master 
masons, Eudes de Montreuil, was at the church of the 
Cordeliers. Thevet gives his portrait from his incised 
gravestone, and says that he was St. Louis^ favourite 
master, who went with the king to the East and built the 
towers of Jaffa. He died in 1289. ** Many,'' says Thevet, 
writing in 1584 (his sympathies evidently went with the 
old rigime)^ ** will wonder at the inclusion of his portrait, 
for he concerned himself with things mechanical, and was 
not of those who puff themselves up. Michael Angelo, 

* Woltmann says the title of Doctor is a frequent equivalent for 
Master in Italy: he cites a mosaic at Spoleto signed by *' Doctor 

Fig. iio. Elides de Montieuil. Master mason of Paris (lived c. laao^ 1989). 



Face p 252 


industrious as he was, would not have done as much work 
in sixty years as Eudes in twenty." (Fig. iii is drawn 
from Thevef s plate.) 

Bauchal suggests that Eudes may have been related to 
the last named Pierre; they were both king's masons. 
Eudes received four sols a day, with 100 sols annually for 
his robes, also his food and keep for two horses at the 
palace. Another king's mason to St. Louis in Paris was 
Guillaume de St.-Patu. One of the most famous Paris 
masons of the fourteenth century was Raymond du Temple, 
Ma^on du Roi, or Maitre des (Euvres de Ma^onnerie du Roi. 
He also was master of the works of Notre Dame. At this 
time the royal works in Paris were under the charge of a 
mason and a carpenter. Two others were responsible for the 
works in Champagne, two others in Languedoc, and two 
others in Normandy. A fine engraved monument in St. Ouen, 
Rouen, shows a master mason with his apprentice, and bears 
the inscription: ^^Cy gist Maistre Alexandre de Bemval, 
Maistre des (Euvres de Ma^nnerie du Roy, nostre sire : 
du Baillage de Rouen et de ceste eglise, qui trespassa Tan 
de grace mil, occcxl, le v. jour de Janvier.^ One of the 
last of the great Gothic masters was Martin Cambiche of 
Paris. He built the great transepts of Beauvais, receiving 
forty sols a week, from 1500 to 1537. After this, Jean 
Vast constructed over the crossing, an immense lantern- 
tower, four hundred and seventy-five feet high, the vaulting 
beneath being pierced so that the whole fearful height 
was visible from the floor of the church. 

Rouen Cathedral was begun to be rebuilt after a fire in 
1200, The firet W«3ter seems to Iwve been Jean d'Andeli, 



cementarius and magister of the fabric of the church. 
Jean was followed by Ingelram, master of the works, in 

Fig. III. The Master mason of an apse of St. Ouen at Rouen (begun about 1306) 

1 2 14. After him Durand, le machon^ vaulted the nave in 

1233; and on the boss of the last bay of the vault is 

inscribed, " Durandus mefecit.'^ * In 125 1 Grautier de St. 

* Is this the same Durandus as the French Master of that name who 
built Beanlieu Abbey in Hampshire early in the thirteenth century ? 


Hilaire was master, and the north transept portal was 
begun in 1278 by his successor, Jean Dair, who was 
followed by Jean Davy ; one of the last two was probably 
the mason of the great south portal, and the Lady Chapel 
(1 302-1 3 20) IS attributed to Jean Davy. One of the 
stained-glass windows of the ambulatory was signed by 
Clement of Chartres. In one of the north choir-chapels 
of St. Ouen, Rouen, is the tomb of a master who most 
probably began that work, soon after 1300. (Fig. iii.) 

On the grave-slab of Libergiers before mentioned (see 
Fig. 108) we have a portrait of the master in his cap and 
robe of office. The former is to be especially remarked, 
as where it occurs, as it often does, in mediaeval art, it 
marks men of the degree of doctors or masters. The 
degree of mastership in the Masons' Guild was closely 
parallel to that of the master of arts in the university, 
that is, the Guild of Letters. 

By serving a seven-years apprenticeship he became a 
bachelor or companion, and, on presenting a proper work- 
thesis, he was admitted master. Our curious courtesy title, 
*^ Mr.,*" does not mean employer, but graduate of guild ; 
however, the two meanings came together, as only a 
master might be an employer. 

In a careful study by Gustave Faquiez (1877) of the 
methods pursued in building, he concludes that masonry 
was the most important of the building arts, and that the 
master always belonged to that craft. A master carpenter, 
however, gave the plans for the woodwork involved, in 
consultation with the master of the works. 

The king, great personages, and religious establishments 


had their own master masons and master carpenters ; such 
directors of the royal buildings were attached to the 

Court, and sworn. 
These king^s masons 
were, of course, held 
in high consideration, 
and were constantly 
in close contact with 
the king. The son of 
Raymond du Temple, 
king's mason, was god* 
son of the king and a 
student at the Univer- 
sity of Orl^ns. Ap- 
prenticeship done, 
several of the crafts 
imposed the test of the 
master work {chef 
d'osuvre)^ the wardens 
of the guild being the 
examiners. If success- 
ful, the new master 
gave gloves to the 
wardens and a repast 
to the guild, and so 
became a ^^past-mas- 
ter.*" When we admit 
that the great cathe- 
drals of France were technically designed by men bred as 
working masons, it is not to be inferred that mastership 
was less esteemed, but that workmanship was more valued. 
It is, indeed, the most significant fact in regard to Gothic 

Fig. 112. Gravestone of a master mason, in 
the Cluny Museum, Paris. 



art that it marks the triumph of craftsmanship in an age 
which understood and honoured it. 

Tlie mason^s tools, the weapons of his 
craft, were to him what the sword was 
to the knight, and he loved to have them 
sculptured on his tomb and charged on 
his seal. Fig. 112 is a thirteenth-century 
grave-slab now in the Cluny Museum 
(see also Fig. 1 13). This, one of the most 
interesting of existing memorials, is at 
Caudebec on the grave of the mason who, f\ J 
we may suppose from his long service, q^^^^^^ 
built a great part of the church with his ^5^ y^ ^^ 
own hand and died in 1484. On one >^_T^s. 
side of a long inscription is engraved the fig 113. Yiom 
figure of the master, and on the other side grave-stone of master 
is the plan of his work, with his tools— m«on at Caudebec 
plummet, mallet and trowel. The inscription begins: 
^* Guillaume Letellier, master mason of the chmx^, who had 
the conduct of the works for thirty years and more, and 
erected the choir and chapels.^' It is worthy of remark that 
his surname is probably derived from his occupation — ^the 
stonecutter. Two facts show that he was the first master ; 
that he built the east end, always the point of beginning, 
and that the plan was put on his grave. 

Fig. 114 shows the seal of one of the early fourteenth- 
centiuy master masons at Strasbourg, charged with three 
mason^s axes on a bend. Fig. 115 is from a window at 

The impression that the Cathedrals cannot be assigned 


to particular builders, and that mediaeval masons were 
little honoured in their day, is curiously &t from the 
truth. Masonry, including sculpture, was the representative 
art of the age, and the captains of masonry 
I received most honourable public recognition. 
Along the lintel of the great central portal 
of St. James of Compostella is cut a careful 
inscription about eighteen feet long to the 
effect that in mclxxxviu the doors were com- 
FiG. Z14. Seal pleted by Master Matthew who directed the 
of master mason ^^rt fix)m the foundation. This inscription 

of Strasbourg. . , *^ 

IS more than a mason s signature. It can 
only be accounted for by recognising it as a public honour 
voted to one who had magnificently exercised his craft. 

Forming a band at the base of the south transept oi 
Notre Dame, Paris, below the beautiful sculptures which 
adorn the doorway, is an inscription in large raised letters 
giving the date of 1257 for the beginning of the new 
work, and ending with the name of the master mason 
(" Lathomus ") — kallensi lathomo vivente iohannk 
MAGisnto (Kg. 117). The formula "Vivente'* is often 
found on tombs, and it is evident that this is an honorary 
memorial inscribed after the master's death. 

At Amiens across the south transept above the door of 
the <^ Vierge Dor^" on the cornice is a decayed band of 
letters seven inches high — en l an <^ l mcABN atio valoff mcc 


. • . ROBERT. • . . The inscription is in mid-thirteenth 
century letters, and, according to tradition, refers to 
Robert of Luzarches the first mason ; a tradition which the 
analogous examples show that we may safely accept. 


At Strasbouig, above the great west portal was formerly 
an inscription which told that in 1277 the glorious work 
was begun by Master Erwin von Steinbach. 

As we have seen, on the practical completion of the 
Nave of Amiens in 12889 & striking memorial to the first 
three masters and the contemporaneous Bishop was laid 
down in the centre of the pavement labyrinth. At Reims 

Fig. 115. From stained glass at Chartres. 

a similar memorial was dedicated to the first four masters, 
and a confirmation is given by this fact to the view that 
these four masters substantially completed the entire 

At Westminster Abbey there is a remarkable example 
of such an inscription. On the marble cornice of the 
Confessor^s Shrine, precisely the most honourable position 
in England, were set letters of blue glass mosaic, three 
inches high, giving first the date 1279, then the words 




civis, followed by the name of King Henry III. as having 
ordered the work. On the mosaic pavement laid down 
before the altar in 1268 appears the name of the artist 
Odericus of Rome. 

A number of masons^ drawings from the Middle Ages 

Fig. zz6. A, Original design for the west front of a great church of the 
thirteenth century. B, Suggested interpretation of same. 

have been preserved in France, Italy, Grermany, and the 
Low Countries. The earliest of these, after the studies of 
Villars de Honnecourt (of which an example is given in 
Fig. 109), are some drawings of a west front of a large 
church which exist as palimpsests in a book at Reims, 
and which cannot be later than the middle of the 
thirteenth century. They are drawn in correct ortho- 
graphic projection, and two seem to be alternatives for 



the same elevation. The one of these, of which Fig. 1 16, A, 
is a reduction, is the least interesting, but I wish to offer 
an explanation of the tracery shown at the central porch. 
According to Didron (Annales, v.) this represents a window 
drawn in this position because there was no other room 
on the parchment. On comparing, however, this design 
as it stands with Libergiers^ west front of St. Nicaise it 
seems clear that the scheme is a reasonable, and indeed 
almost an inevitable development from it. The right 
hand side, B, of Fig. 116 and the plan above show how I 
would interpret it. 


Fig. 117. Inscription in honour of the master mason of Notre Dame, Paris 



It is impossible in short concluding chapters, dealing with 
the Grothic style outside France, to do much more than to 
try to indicate the relationship of its several branches to 
the parent stem. 

The development of Anglo-Norman Romanesque has 
never been fully traced, and it is possible, as has been said 
above, that in the two generations following the Conquest 
steps in development may have been taken here earlier 
than in Normandy. Before the middle of the twelfth 
century, however, it is certain that France had taken the 
lead, and that from that time the English style was in 
a subordinate position. Many writers contest this on the 
ground of taste ; they say that they do not like the ex- 
aggerated buttress-scaffolding of French High Grothic, 
and prefer the subtle, shy charm of English examples. 
But when we inquire in detail, of precedence, of scale, of 
the science of construction and energy of production ; and of 
the development of ancillary arts like stained-glass, sculp- 
ture in stone and bronze, enamelling, ivory-carving, manu- 
script-painting, and, indeed, every one of the sectional 



Face p. i(y2 


arts which make up the drama of architecture, we must 
confess that the source and strength of Gothic is to be 
found in North France, and that England followed it, in the 
transition from Romanesque, step by step at one remove. 

Fountains Abbey affords the best opportunity for a 
study of the English transition, as there a large mass of 
building work was being continuously carried on for a 
great number of years, and from contemporary accounts 
the dates of several parts of the work can be accurately 
inferred. In 1132 some monks of St. Mary^s Abbey, 
York, deciding to adopt the Cistercian rule, settled at 
Fountfldns, and sent messengers to St. Bernard of Clair- 
vaux, who sent back with them (xeofirey, a monk of that 
place, to teach them. The present buildings were pro- 
bably not begun for a few years, but there cannot be a 
doubt that the plan was laid out under the direction of 
GeofiPrey. The greater part of the church seems to have 
been built under his supervision, as there are certain un- 
English features about the nave and transepts which are 
best explained by reference to Burgundicm examples. In 
1 147 there was a great fire, and examination of existing 
buildings makes it clear that the church belongs to the 
time before the fire, say 1135-45, and that the chapter- 
house belongs to the part rebuilt soon after the fire, 
c. 1 160. The refectory was most probably built between 
1170-79 with the south part of the western range of 
buildings. A great eastward extension of the church was 
undertaken at latest about 12 10. 

The nave has a decidedly Norman character, but this 
in the main is given to it by the plain scalloped capitals. 


The great arches are pointed, and the aisles are covered 
by pointed barrel-vaults set like a saddle transversely over 
each bay. In general refinement the work is in advance 
of anything that up to that time had been seen in 
England. A few of the capitals have simple carved 
leafage ; if this treatment had been carried throughout the 
^ Norman ^^ effect would be almost entirely absent, and the 
work would be at once classed as transitional. The tran- 
septs, which are equally early, appear even more advanced, 
for the pointed arches here spring from an impost-moulding 
instead of from the Norman form of capital, and each 
bay is lighted by a pair of windows with a circle above 
them. The central spans of the early church were never 
vaulted, but were covered by wooden roofs. Over the 
crossing appears to have been a low lantern-tower. The 
whole church must have been a very logical and refined 
building, and we may see in it how the Cistercian puri- 
tanism was an element in the preparation of the waj 
for Grothic. The details of the chapter-house are mud) 
more elegant and ornamental. The entrance doorways an 
still circular, but are finely moulded, and the whole worl 
is in a style complete and masterly as far as it goes. N< 
barbaric element survives, and it marks the climax o 
transitional work. In the refectory (c. 1 175), the detail 
are still more elegant, and the proportions are tall an 
slender. The windows are fine, sharply-pointed lancetf 
those in the gable-ends coupled in pairs, with one shai 
between them common to the two. It is a beautiful piec 
of first Gothic* 

* The monastic orders spread the seeds of Gothic over Ennype (sf 
Plate 57). 

RIPON 265 

Fountains is but a chief work of a great Northern 

^n school of monastic building, comprising Rievaulx (nave), 

^ Eirkstall, Byland, Jervaulx, and many other examples. 


^ ^ Ripon Cathedral, of old a collegiate church, is another 

^^ fine and early example of this transition Gothic. It is 

gjl proved to have been commenced before the death of 

l^jl Archbishop Roger of York in 1181. Some details at 

L^ Ripon, as, for instance, the corbels of the choir-aisles, 

j^ closely resemble work at Fountains. One of the most 

ig interesting parts of the church is the Chapter-house on 

. u the south side of the choir, which all writers assign to a 

^ date earlier than Roger^s work. A recent examination 

^ has convinced me that it is in every way all of a piece. 

<«, Some details of the church, unblighted by restoration, 

'u can be seen in the present library. The curious nave 

' should be compared with that of Nun Monkton. Scott^s 

^ theory of its first form may be accepted, save that there 

J should surely be a lower tier of windows opening in the 

^ wall passage. The early work is of high interest and 

^ * I We have in Gervase^s account of the burning and re- 

'"Ti erection of the choir of Canterbury Cathedral clear 

^ *\j evidence as to the dates of every part of that structure. 

^ Certain touches in the account suggest that Gervase was 

1^ himself the monastic clerk-of-works associated with the 

^ . master-mason, William of Sens. ** The master" b^an to 

^r prepare for the new work, and to destroy the old, in 1175. 
In 1 176-7 he completed the bays of the high vault from 

x^^ the tower to the east crossing. In the next year he 


completed five more pillars on each side, and wga prapMing 
to build the vauLt-when- he fell from a beam. The 
master, thus hurt, gave charge of the work to an in- 
genious monk, who was the ^^ overseer of the masons^ 
(Gervase himself?); but the master from his bed com- 
manded all things, and thus was completed the vault of 
the eastern crossing. Then the master gave up the work 
and returned to France, and William, an EngUshman, 
acute in workmanship (masonry, of course), succeeded 
him. The monks entered the new choir in 1180. Id 
1181-2 " our mason '^ erected the pillars of St Thomas's 
chapel, and in 11 84 completed its vault and roof. In the 
story of Gervase we have a typical history of mediaeval 
cathedral-building. We start with a pre-existing church 
made up of Lanfranc'^s nave and Anselm's choir. The 
choir is burnt ; the clergy camp out in the nave ; masons 
are called in to advise, one being a Frenchman from Sens, 
who is made resident master, and a monk is appointed as 
*< overseer of the masons ^ — that is, agent on behalf of the 
clergy for the accounts. The work is carried on section 
by section ; and the first mason is succeeded by a second 
before the building is completed. The ^^ design ^ is careful 
contrivance to fit the new portion to pre-existing con- 
ditions. In this particular case the puzzle of extending 
the choir through a space contracted by two old side- 
chapels which were retained was solved with brilliant 
skill. Grervase himself tells us that the master, not 
choosing to pull down the side-chapels, gradually and 
obliquely drew in his work, ^all which may be more 
pleasantly seen by the eyes than taught in writing.^ This, 
indeed, is as true now as when Gervase wrote, and a most 


I beautiful composition of lines results from the economical 

k adaptation. There cannot be a doubt, as is allowed by 

I Willis, that we owe the planning of the entire scheme, 

I including the portion finished by the English mason, to 

t William of Sens. 

[I Canterbury is a French cathedral built on English soil, 

,0 and the resemblance to Sens itself is strict. The interior 

^ of the eastern transept is in general appearance the most 

^ advanced part of the work. The large circular windows, 

\ undivided, except by iron bars arranged in a pattern, and 

^ filled with splendid stained glass, are particularly in- 

j J teresting. VioUet le Due gives a similar circle, divided only 

1^ by ironwork, from Dijon. The open arcades in the upper 

^ storey of the interior of the ends of the transept were 

i|y followed, with variations, at Rochester and Salisbury. 
The large area of stained glass in the church is particularly 
fine in quality, and is almost identical with work at Sens 


j^ and other places in France, and must be allowed to have 


come from that country. Didron assigns it a date between 
the glass of S. Denis and Chartres, and grants that it is of 
**^ unsiupassed beauty. The clerestory windows of the choir 

' r. and apse were filled with a continuous series of single 

figures representing the ancestors of the Virgin. 


. 1 192. Unfortunately the actual head of the church, an 

apse of singular form, has been destroyed, and only its 

^ foundations have been more or less recovered ; but at least 

*\[ the lower part of the existing presbytery and its aisles was 


In the eastern limb of Lincoln we have another fine 
example of a Grothic work begun in the twelfth century. 
St. Hugh began to rebuild the ^^head^^ of the church in 


probably well advanced by 1200. From a "Life of 
St. Hugh,^ written some time before 1235, ^^ appears that 
the church was complete to the transepts, including the 
great circular windows, at the time of writing. VioUet 

le Due, it is said, did not see 
much trace of direct French 
influence at Lincoln ; but this 
'y*'\'^^^^^\ surely means that he saw the 
influence of the Gothic of Nor- 
mandy. In Fig. 118 is given 
what I suppose may have been 
Fia 118. Unooin Cathedral, the complete form of the east 

^^cstedoriginalformof thecast ^^ ^^ Lincoln. ITie plan of 

the apse may be compared with 
a memorandum made by Villars de Honnecourt of the 
apse of the monastic church at Vaucelles, near Cambrai, 
now destroyed (Fig. 72). The beautiful rose in the north 
transept of Lincoln looks like a combination of the roses 
of Chartres and the small interior roses of Notre Dame. 
Wells Cathedral was also in progress at the end of 
the twelfth century, and the east end of Chichester is 
another early work. 

From this time there was slight development for the 
next thirty or forty years. Salisbury, which shows little 
growth, was begun in 1220, and represents the mid-point 
between Lincoln, which on the whole, is the finest and 
completest of our cathedrals, and Westminster Abbey, 
begun in 1245. It seems probable that this slow develop- 
ment for a period may be accounted for by King John's 
loss of Normandy in the first years of the thirteenth 


century. Westminster Abbey certainly shows renewed 
contact with French influences. Knowing Westminster, my 
attention was arrested at Reims last year by several striking 
resemblances between the French coronation church and 
our own. Works at the Abbey were begun in July 1245. 
Four years afterwards we learn that the master mason in 
charge was one Magister Henricus cementarius. In 1250 
the king commanded that six or eight hundred men 
should work at the church. About 1254 Henry was 
succeeded by Master John of Gloucester, the king^s 
mason, who carried on the works to 1260, and was in 
turn succeeded by Master Robert of Beverley, king's 
mason, under whose chai^ the work of Henry III. at the 
church was completed. John of St. Albans, the king'^s 
sculptor, is also mentioned in the rolls; he probably 
wrought the fine figures in the chapter-house and the 
transepts. In 1269 Edward the Confessor was translated 
to his new shrine, and the ^^ new work ^ was consecrated. 
After the building of Westminster, direct imitation of 
French work is not evident.* 

In my necessary use of terms of comparison, I am far 
from speaking slightingly of English work. I only speak 
of less or more as of the magnitude of stars or the mass 
of mountains. Both schools of the one art are natural 
and fitting, perfect of their kind. I would, if I could, 
make use of a comparison of superiority which would not 
involve inferiority. Moreover, Grothic art in England 
was a true development contimunisl^ influenced from 
France, but not artificially imported. 

* I have given some account of the king's masons and the building 
of the Abbey church in '* Trans. R.I.B. A.," 1901. 


In Spain, also, the general law of Gothic expansion 
was followed, and the French style >ras more or less made 
use of in the houses of the new monastic orders. Later, 
some of the great cathedrals were rebuilt in the matured 
French manner. Toledo, which has a particularly noble 
chevet of radiating chapels, the scheme of which Street 
considered the most p^ect anywhere to be found, was 
begun in 1226, and constructed by a French master. The 
plan, as Street says, closely resembles that which V. de 
Honnecourt gives in his book as contrived by himself and 
Pierre de Corbie, and Enlart suggests that it may be 
actually derived from this soiux^. In this admirable plan 
which was to some extent anticipated at Le Mans, there 
are two ambulatories around the apse with vault compart- 
ments alternately square and triangular in each. Ten 
pillars between the two aisles answer to six in the apse 
itself, and against the outer wall there are eighteen 
responds, between which open semicircular chapels opposite 
the square vault-compartments, and small square ones to 
the triangular intermediate vaults. 

The Cathedral of Burgos is also fine French work, and 
follows Bourges. The Door of the Apostles has a noble 
series of sculptures in the tympanum, in the arch orders, 
and in the jambs. From a photograph it looks as if it 
must have been sculptured by a master who had worked 
at Amiens, or on the north doors of Reims. In the 
tympanum is the Majesty supported by St. Mary and 
St. John, and angels carrying the instruments of the 
Passion. In the arch orders are a particularly remarkable 
series of angels and seraphim, and at the jambs one of the 
finest series of the Apostles anywhere existing. There are 


also many fine sculptures distributed over the west 
front, including a Grallery of the Kings. At Leon the 
western porches and sculptures, wrought about 1275, 
closely resemble those of Chartres. 

Savoy and French Switzerland are almost as much 
provinces of the Gothic style as Normandy. In Geneva 
and Lausanne are two fine early French cathedrals. The 
former resembles Lyons, and its towers stand (roer the 
transepts. It seems to have been begun as a Romanesque 
work, and to have been modified as it advanced. Around 
the interior of the choir is a blind arcade on fluted 
pilasters, the capitals of which are beautifully carved, 
and two of them have figures from the series of the 
liberal arts, and are inscribed musica and (6£o)m£TRIA. 
The transepts are two bays long, the end bays being 
under the towers. The crossing is much less from east 
to west than from north to south, and the transepts are 
narrow and were evidently intended to bear towers from 
the ^rst. The first work includes two bays west of the 
crossing, and- there is a preparation in them for sex- 
partite vaulting, but quadripartite was substituted, and 
the evidence disappears in the western bays. The west 
end finishes with a narrow vaulted bay, and always pro- 
bably had a western gallery as at present. The aisles 
are narrow and the vaulting rises much more, longitu- 
dinally, than do the transverse arches separating the 
compartments, which look like a series of domed vaults. 
The windows are broad lancets. A beautiful contrivance 
is found in the little lights which, around the apse, open 
to the triforium passage, only one to each double bay of 



its arcade, but enough to make it glitter. This noble 
church has of late years gone through the terrible ordeal of 

restoration, and restoration, 
both here and at Lausanne, 
has been as ^^ thorough ^ as 
any in the world. By the ex- 
penditure of infinite thought 
and pains, conscientious and 
scientific, by means of com- 
missicms, reports, and the 
labours of eminent archi- 
tects, these buildings have 
been withered and blasted 
like our Lichfield, Chester, 
Worcester, and the exterior 
of Ripon. 

Lausanne has western 
towers, a central lantern, 
and a fine rose window in the 
transept — all probably sug- 
gested by Laon. Two other 
smaller towers, east of the 
transepts, flank the apse, 
which finely stands over- 
looking a deep valley. In 
the south porch are some 
good sculptures (Plate 58). 
Coire, another early Swiss 
cathedral, is a mixture of French, German and Lombard 
elements. It follows the North-Italian type in having a 
high presbytery over a crypt which is fully visible from 

Fig. 119. LAUsanne Cathedral, 
ground plan. 



Face p. 272 



the nave, and its floor is only about two feet below the 
nave level ; the crypt is vaulted on ogives, but the curva- 
ture being very flat the centre is sustained by a column 
which rests on a figure seated on a lion; a composition so 
identical with pillars at the entrance to the crypt at 
Modena that they are almost certainly by the hand of the 
same master (Fig. 59). The nave arcade has simple 
pointed arches, and the ogival vaults are on pointed trans- 
verse arches. All the arches and ribs are in square orders, 


Fig. I90. Coire Cathedral ; early altar front of marble. 

and the capitals are rudely carved. The plan is almost 
exactly like that of Zurich Cathedral, comprising a short- 
aisled nave, a square raised choir, and a small square 
presbytery to the east. In Zurich, however, the aisle has 
two compartments to one of the nave ; but at Coire the 
aisle-vaults are much elongated east and west. Zurich, 
moreover, has a fine vaulted triforium, and all the details 
are characteristically German. There is a good deal of 
doubt about the dates of the several parts of Coire, but it 
seems certain that the superstructure of the nave is an 
offshoot of early Burgundian Gothic. In the south chapel 



thei'e is a very interesting altar-front, being a large white 
marble altar slab, carved with interlacing patterns identical 
with those which we in England call Saxon. (See Fig. 1209 
of which Fig. 121 is an enlarged detail) Coire is still un- 
restored, and altogether a most interesting puzzle. Zurich, 
on the other hand, has been scraped to the very bone. 

Fig. X9T. Coire Cathedral ; detail of altar front 

Mediaeval art in Belgium developed by continuous inter- 
change with France. In the twelfth century Toumay 
Cathedral and the bronze-working centre of Huy led : in 
the thirteenth century France repaid the debt in such 
buildings as Notre Dame, Bruges, and the Hospital of 
St John in the same city. The latter has a finely sculptural 
door (c. 1270) with the Vii^n's assumption, and coronation 
represented in the tympanum, These buildings are 



Fact /, 274 


pai-ticularly interesting in being built of brick.* In the four- 
teenth century Flemish artists,as we have seen, again took the 
lead, and art even in Paris became Franco-Flemish. (PI. 59.) 
In Germany, at monastic centres, there had long been 
sporadic cases of building in the Grothic style before 
it had any marked influence on the general native 
Romanesque, which, indeed, was carried on in places 
through the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.f The 
perfected French style was frankly adopted and imported 
at Cologne in 1248. The plan is founded on that of 
Beauvais, and possibly the master had a knowledge of the 
plans of the church of Amiens, llie windows of the 
earliest part are copies of those at the Sainte Chapelle. 
Sir 6. Scott has preserved an interesting piece of evidence 
as to the sources of Cologne, showing that '^Beauvais 
rather than Amiens was the type from which it was 
imitated."" ^The pinnacles over the eastern chapels at 
Beauvais are of a very peculiar form, consisting of a 
pinnacle standing on four detached shafts and placed over 
another pinnacle, of which the pyramidal part runs up in 
the midst of the shafts of the upper one, and terminates 
under its canopy. Now the late M. Zwimer, the architect 
to Cologne Cathedral, showed me a model of just such a 
pinnacle that showed the original form of those round the 
apse there, but he had substituted solid pinnacles for the 
sake of strength.^ The nave of Strasbourg is also a pure 
French work ; the towers of Laon are copied at Naumbeig 
and Bamberg, at the latter of which the sculptures of 
Reims are closely imitated. 

* Of later data are many magnificent churches and towen, aU of brick, 
t Of the monastic transition, Amshorg is parallel to oar Fountains. 



The artistic pre-eminence of France at the end of the 
twelfth century, and the activity of the Cistercians, 
resulted in a sort of missionary propaganda of Gothic 
architecture in Italy. About 1200 was builtf close to 
Rome itself, the church and monastic buildings of Fossa- 
nova. The chapter-house, built about 1225, is fdrij 
accurate fiurgundian Gothic. Casamari, south of Rome, 
also a Cistercian house, consecrated in 12 17, is a siQiple 
but elegant work of lancet Gothic, entirely vaulted. In 
1224 the same Order built the Abbey of San Galgano. 
about twelve miles from Siena. This is a beautiful 
Burgundian church, vaulted, and in a pure pointed style. 

When the two great orders of friars, the Dominicans 
and Franciscans, needed large churches for their increasing 
congregations, they were planned very much on the 
Cistercian type, were covered with ogival vaults, and art 
generally Gothic, although of a modified form, and, as 
fitted the circumstances, bare and plain, but logical and 
stately. Sta. Maria Novella in general arrnngement i$ 
like a French Cistercian Church a century earlier. 

Siena Cathedral was begun in 1245, the same year as 



Face p. 276 



our own Westminster Abbey. It is remarkable as being 
a square-ended church ; and as the work in 1257 was 
under the direction of a monk of San Galgano, and as he 
was followed two years after by a second Cistercian, it can 
hardly be doubted that the plan itself was of Cistercian 

The church has now a central dome which rises above a 
hexagonal area on six pillars, but it is not on the axis of 
the transepts, and the plan is in many ways irregular. 
This dome is evidently an afterthought, and must have 
come about much as did the octagon at Ely. The details 
of the church are considerably modified from the Cistercian 
type, and it is built throughout in alternate courses of 
black and white, a survival from work of the Romanesque 
period. This treatment is here, however, so strongly 
marked that it is difficult not to see in it some allusion to 
the Balzana of Siena, blazoned per fess argent and sable. 
The whole campanile, even to its pyramidal top, and 
the pinnacles set around it, is carried out in these alter- 
nate courses. It is a careful and critical version of the 
general type of Lombardic tower — a tall shaft, perfectly 
square, with first a high ground-storey and then a suc- 
cession of six low storeys, in which, beginning at the 
bottom, there is a regular gradation of openings, first a 
single one, then a pair, then three, and so on up to six at 
the top. It sounds simple, indeed childish, but the result 
is of rare beauty. The lantern of the central dome has 
been altered, but a representation of the original form and 
of the campanile fortunately appears in the pictured 
allegory of Good Government in the Palazzo Pubblico, 
painted in the first half of the fourteenth century. On 


the apex of the dome was a large leaded globe, and the 
dome is to be compared with those at Pisa and Sx. Maik\ 
Venice. The church was completed in its first form 
about 1270. In 1340 a vast new nave was undertaken, 
but it was never carried very far. From c. 1360 the 
choir was rebuilt, about 1375 the west end had two bays 
added to it, and c. 1380 tiie present west front was com- 
pleted, following Orvieto. 

When the Gothic influence spread beyond the centres 
where it was planted by the new monastic orders, it 
became Gothic with a difference. The pointed arch, the 
ogival vault, and other methods of construction, were 
accepted and grafted on the native traditional methods. 
The results were more like varieties of pointed Romanesque 
of a refined type than like the Gothic of the North. This 
is particularly the case in the South. (See Plates 60-62.) 

One of the first churches which showed a more complete 
acceptance of the Grothic style was San Francesco at 
Assisi, the foundation-stone of which was laid in 1228. 
The friars markedly associated themselves with the spread 
of the new style. The upper church is boldly vaulted in 
one span, with tall two-light windows in each bay, and 
resembles in some degree the nave of Angers Cathedral. 
The under church is covered by a low vault on stout 
chamfered ogives. The whole of the interior wall-surface 
is the field for splendid wall-paintings, some of which 
were already begun as early as 1240, and were completed 
by the altogether magnificent series by Giotto of Bible 
pictures and scenes from the life and teaching of St. Francis, 
including in four great compositions the allegories of the 



Face p. 278 


three vows of the order, Poverty, Chastity, and Obedience, 
and the glorification of St. Francis himself. The church 
was consecrated in 1253. In the doorway, and, above all, 
in the aixhitectural features of Giotto^s paintings is to be 
traced the influence of the ^^ Cosmati ^ school of marble 

By 1260 Niccol6 Pisano, the greatest master of his age 
in sculpture, had been influenced by the new impulse. His 
pulpit in the Pisa baptistery is signed and dated 1260. 
It is supported on cusped semicircular arches rising from 
columns, the alternate ones of which rest on lions in the 
Lombardic manner. Each side above is formed by a 
sculptured slab crowded with figures evidently studied 
from Roman reliefs, yet frank and vivid through and 
through, and penetrated with Art^s new life. The 
Siena pulpit, undertaken six years later, is almost identical 
in general design, but the Gothic element is still more in 
evidence. In the former one the Virtues at the angles are 
obviously studied fix>m antique originals. Fortitude is a 
Hercules, and Charity is a Roman matron. The Virtues 
at Siena have become crowned virgins. A third pulpit, 
that of Pisa Cathedral, is again very similar. It was the 
work of Giovanni Pisano, from 1302. The central pillar 
here is formed by a group of the three theological Virtues, 
and the fovur cardinal Virtues support it roimd about. 
These Virtues have appropriate emblems. The main 
pillar stands on a pedestal, on which are sculptured the 
seven Liberal Arts. The influence of French Gothic art 
on the sculpture of Italy is as marked as that of the 
building style. At the Baptistery of Parma there are 
figures of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, which can 

28o PISA 

only have been done by an artist who knew the similar 
figures at Reims. French stained glass was also 

There are several churches with charming Gothic, or 
part Gothic, fix>ntispieces in Pisa. San Michele di Borgo 
is a Gothic translation in small of the cathedral fnmt, 
having three tiers of cusped arcades standing free from 
the wall above a plain basement, in which are three 
round-headed doors. A pretty feature here is a triple 
tabernacle containing a statue of the Virgin, which rests 
on the lintel of the central door, and the little gables of 
which rise above the door arch and veil its form. 

Another front of this kind is that of the Church of 
San Pietro, which is simpler, more logical, and indeed 
strikingly beautiful. But the most important Gothic 
monument is the great isolated cloistered court, the 
Campo Santo, the walls of which, within, are continuously 
covered with frescoes. The Spina chapel, now so terribly 
restored, must also be mentioned. 

We cannot stay to trace the Gothic school in Verona, 
Milan, Venice, and, indeed, all over North Italy, but must 
at once turn towards Florence. 

The Dominican Church of Santa Maria Novella, 
Florence, is said by Villani to have been begun in 1278, 
but some reasons have been brought forward which suggest 
that this date applies to the erection of the nave, and that 
the eastern limb may date from about 1246. If this is 
the case, it is one of the earliest Gothic works in the city. 
The fine church of Santa Trinita was rebuilt from r. 1250, 
it is said by Niccold Pisano, who in that year went to 



Face p. 280 


Florence. The other great Friary Church, that of Santa 
Croce, was begim in 1294. ^^ ^^^^ painted roof is just 
now being brought to light 

About 1250 was commenced the Bargello, which is 
a noble eiutmple of the castellated palace of the time, 
reasonable and strong. The style is the development of 
the local Romanesque with an infiltration of Gothic details. 

In 1398 the Palazzo Vecchio was begun. The general 
form of this building is probably as well known as that 
of any in the world. It is a great mass of masonry, 
almost a cube ; the upper storey, containing a gallery for 
defence, is carried by a far-jutting machicoulis, from the 
projecting face of which rises a tall tower which is crowned 
within its battlements by an open belfry, the whole about 
300 feet high. The supporting of this tower four or five 
feet in advance of the wall beneath looks fearful in its 
daring, as is said, *Mt is built on air.^ It should be 
observed that the crowning turret, with its heavy bell, 
does not stand on the centre of the tower, but is pushed 
back for some distance, so as to weight the inner wall ; 
and the corbelling is set much closer directly under the 
tower than elsewhere. The masonry is squared, but the 
face has a fortresslike roughness. The windows are of 
white marble and very beautiful, of two lights with cusped 
heads, and divided by a shaft under a round-headed open- 
ing, the ai'ch being slightly pointed on the extrados only. 
The space over the coupled lights is charged with a fleur- 
de-lys or a cross alternately. 

In our National Gallery there is a careful view of the 
state of the Palace about 15 10, when it was painted by 
Piero di Cosimo on the background of the portrait of 


Soderini, the chief magistrate of Florence. In front is 
the masonry terrace, the Ringhiera or Rostrum of Florence, 
since removed, with steps only opposite the door. At the 
comer of the terrace is the Marzocco, gilded. At the 
angles of the battlements, directly over the corbels, are 
other gilt lions in little niches. These have now entirely 
disappeared. The shields of arms between the corbels 
were brightly coloured. The copper roof of the bdfiry 
was also gilt, and shone over the city like a pyramid of 
fire. Vasari says that Amolfo was the architect of this 
wonderful building, but this is doubtful. It is not in 
that master^s characteristic manner, while it is, on the 
other hand, in the traditional Florentine style, being a 
slight advance on the Baigello. 

Amolfo was bora at CoUe about 1232, and worked for 
Niocolo at Siena. Between 1 280-1 290 he was engaged at 
Orvieto on an important tomb, which is ornamented with 
mosaic patterns and twisted columns inlaid with mosaic 
in the style of ^ Cosmati ^ work, as well as with fine sculp- 
tures. The name of Amolfo, and the date 1285, appear 
on the marble mosaic altar-tabernacle in St. Paul'*s outside 
the walls, Rome ; and most writers agree that this is the 
same Amolfo who was given the charge of the proposed 
new cathedral of Florence in 1 296. Amolfo was a sculptor, 
and everything goes to show that he had become a follower 
of the Roman marble-workers, and this explains his scheme 
for a cathedral of coloured marbles for the Florentines. 

At the time of which we are writing this Cosmati work 
became a great fashion, and artbts in this school of work- 
manship were brought from Rome by our Henry III. to 
decorate his new abbey church at Westminster. In 



1268 I the rich mosaic pavement of the presbytery was 
laid down, and the base- 
ment of the Confessor's 
Shrine was made about the 
same time, by Peter^ Civts 
Romanus, The tomb of 
Henry IIL is also a fine 
example of this work, and 
there is a fourth in the 
small tomb of his little 
daughter Katharine. 
Another famous work which 
was in the Strawberry Hill 
Collection has entirely dis- 
appeared. This was the 
shrine of Simplicius, Fausfci- 
nus and Beatrice, erected 
in Sta. Maria Maggiore, 
Rome, by Giovanni Capoc- 
cio. It was torn from the 
church and sold to Sir 
William Hamilton, from 
whom Walpole obtained it. 
There is, at the Society 
of Antiquaries, a large and 
admirable drawing of it 
made while it was in its 
original position. At the 
sale of the Walpole Collec- 
tion it was pimdiased by a Bond Street dealer, and I cannot 
trace it further. It was a shrine and altar ciborium in 

Fig. X23. Altar of ''Cosmftti** work 
formerly in S. M. Maggiore, Rome, 


one, the shrine being upborne on porphyry columns, and 
rising to a total height of twenty-five feet. 

On the base of the shrine was a mosaic of Capoccio and 
his wife offering an image of the altar-shrine to the Virgin, 
and beneath it an inscription, ^^ iacobys ioannis CAFOCcn 


The foundation-stone of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence, 
one of the largest cathedrals in the world, was laid on 
September 8, 1296, as is recorded on a stone built into the 
south wall opposite the campanile, which also names 
Amolfo as having been the master. A grant of 1300 
provided that Master Amolfo da Colle del Cambio was to 
be exempted from a tax because he was Capo-maestro of 
the works, and surpassed every one else in his art, so that 
Florence was in expectation of having the most beautiful 
temple in all Tuscany. 

Amolfo died in 1301,* probably leaving a model of the 
church. It is thought that the church, which appears in 
Simone Martini^s (?) painting in the Spanish chapel repre- 
sents this model. At least Vasari says it does, *^and 
because he says it, it is not necessary to believe the con- 
trary ! ^ The plan of the church is one of the most perfect 
of structural schemes, and it is much larger and simpler 
in its parts than any of the Northem catiiedrals. Three 
limbs, with apsidal terminations, project from the central 
octagonal space to the east, north, and south ; while to 
the west the nave is formed by only four immense bays. 

* The date is variously given up to 1310, but the registration of 
death in March 1301 has been found. A. Cocchi, "Le Chiese di 
Firenze," 1903. 



Face p. 284 


The resistance of the three apses against the octagon of 
the dome is increased by each being surrounded by a 
continuous row of chapels, and in the re-entering angles 
other chapels rise against the alternate sides of the 
octagon as high as the three principal apses. 

Did this plan originate from some traveller'^s account of 
Santa Sophia, with its central dome sustained by great 
apses, and those by lesser apses, or is it a bold aggrandise- 
ment of Pisa Cathedral, with its dome and transeptal 
apses ? As a matter of fact, it resembles the trefoil form 
of the Toumay type and the remarkable plan shown in 
our Fig. 63, and is a member of the group derived from 
the transversely-apsed Byzantine churches. The great 
central octagon was doubtless adopted from the Baptistery 
of Florence. 

In 1334 Giotto di Bondone was elected master of the 
cathedral and of all other public works, and laid the 
foundations of the campanile in the same year. Giotto 
was bom at Colle, in 1266, one year after Dante. About 
1280 he went to Assisi as assistant to Cimabue, and there 
developed an independent position. In the great series 
of paintings which cover the Church of St. Francis 
can be traced Giotto^s interest in architecture, and they 
show, as has been said, that he too had become a follower 
of Amolfo and the Cosmati school. The marble Cam- 
panile of Florence, one of the most perfect structures in 
the world, seems at first to be very difficult to account 
for by the ordinary rules of architectural heredity. This 
difficulty, perhaps, arises more from the unaccustomed 
material and details than from the general conception, 
which to some extent agreed with a line of Florentine 


campaniles of which a precious and beautiful example 
still stands at the church of Ognissanti. A small MS. 
drawing, made about 1425, of the old church of San 
Lorenzo shows a campanile still more like that of S. M. 
del Fiore«* As further evidence of Giotto^s direct contact 
with the Roman marble- workers, whose style is so evident 
in the decoration of the campanile, we have the fact 
that Giotto was called to Rome in 1298 to execute the 
NaoiceUa in the portico of St. Peter^s. This was a 
magnificent composition in mosaic, thirty feet by twenty 
feet, of which a fine eai-ly drawing, preserved in the 
Pembroke Collection, was recently published by Mr. Strong. 
According to Vasari, Pietro Cavallini, one of the best- 
known artists of the later Cosmati school, worked under 
Giotto on this mosaic Giotto died in 1337, before the 
construction of the campanile had been far advanced. 
It is believed it had only been carried up to the first row 
of reliefs, seven of which, including the Architecture, 
Painting, and Sculpture, may be assigned to him. (Plates 
63-64.) He was followed until 1343 by Andrea Pisano, 
whose work on the baptistery has been mentioned before. 
In 1350 Francesco Talenti was the master, and he in 1358 
completed the top storey and cornice of the campanile. The 
cupola of the church was begun in 1420 by Bnmelleschi 
and finished in 1436. 

Another curiously romantic work of Florentine Gothic, 
which must not be passed by without reference, is the 
Church of Santa Maria di Or San Michele. On its site, 
from T290, was a loggia, or open market for the sale of 
grain. On one of the piers was painted a picture of the 

* See A. Cocchi 



Face p. 286 


Virgin, which became famous as a miracle-worker. In 
1337 ^^® foundation-stone was laid of the present building, 
which was to serve a dual purpose, as a shrine for the 
precious picture and as a grain store. It is uncertain 
who designed it, but it is known that Francesco Talenti, 
Neri di Fioravanti, and Benci di Clone had a part in the 
work. Soon after 1348 Orcagna began the Tabernacohj a 
wonder of sculpture, inlaid marble-work, and mosaic; and 
soon after its completion the open arches of the loggia 
were, in 1365, filled with elaborate traceried windows. 
This strange building to the exterior is like a stunted 
tower, for there is a second storey above the church which 
gives it considerable height. The interior is finely vaulted, 
and the small apertures of the complex traceried windows 
are filled with bright stained glass, giving something of 
the effect of Cairo lattices. The walls were pictured all 
over, and the vaults painted blue and starred. 

The Ponte Vecchio, one of the noblest monuments of 
the city, was rebuilt in 1345 ^^ arches of very fine form, 
the parapets terminated by towers at either end, and with 
shops on both sides. 

One of the last but not the least interesting Gothic 
buildings in Florence, the construction of which, indeed, 
overlapped the early days of the Renaissance, is the 
Loggia dei Lanzi, built from 1376 to 1390, and decorated 
with charming reliefs of the Virtues, 1383-7. 

Orvieto Cathedral, or at least its splendid facade, is a 
work of the Cosmati school. (Plate 65.) The church was 
begun to be built in 1290 on a plan more Basilican than 
Gothic. An interesting point is the way in which lateral 



resistance is obtained by a series of chapel-niches opening 
out of the aisles and effectually buttressing the woric. 
The east end has been altered, but the interior of the 
nave is nobly fashioned. The capitals, which are especially 





Fig. 133. City gate and the baptistery of Florence Irom a MS. 

beautiful, preserve some reminiscence of Lombard style. 
The roof is carried on low-pitched king-post trusses, 
after all, the finest roof of all, save vaulting. The 
masonry is built in striped courses within and without. 
The lateral windows are simple lancets. The nave in the 
main seems to derive from Viterbo, where the columns 
and capitals are similar. 



orvikto cathedra!.. door jamb. ax example of late 
••cosmatI" work 

Face p 288 


The fa^e, however, is the special glory of the church. 
Id 1310 Lorenzo Maitano (born c. 1275), of Siena, was 
elected Capo-maestro for the purpose of building this 
front, and continued to hold the position till his death in 
1330. Two original designs for the facade exist which so 
closely resemble the present one, yet with differences, that 
there is no doubt that they are by Lorenzo himself. The 
work is most famous for the reliefs which cover the four 
main piers which stand between, and right and left of, the 
three west doors. These reliefs treat severally of the 
Creation, of the Acts of the Prophets, of Christ^s Life, and 
of the Judgment. The scenes in each are connected by 
tendrils of foliage much like a Jesse-tree, which, indeed, 
doubtless furnished the suggestion. One of the reliefs is 
indicated on one of Maitano's drawings, and it is not to 
be doubted that he gave the general idea, and possibly he 
executed those on the two central piers himself. The 
lateral reliefs are, however, much more el^ant, and speak 
of the coming of the Renaissance. They may be the 
work of Andi-ea Pisano, who was chief master here in 
1347-8, or of other masters of his school, or of Orcagna. 
Mr. Douglas Langton, whose examination of the subject 
I have in the main followed, thinks that they were 
executed before 1321 ; but if a comparison is made 
between the beasts and trees which appear on these 
reliefs with those on the Florence campanile, it can 
surely not be doubted that the Florence reliefs are their 
prototypes. In any case, amongst all the lovely things 
in Italian Gothic art, these sculptures, in imagina- 
tion and in execution, are pre-eminent. Nowhere are 
gentler or more commanding angels, nowhere are 


more terrifying devils and more remorseful sinners than 

Above the four piers which have been spoken of stand 
four fine bronze symbols of the Evangelists. One of 
these — ^the bull — fell about ten years ago, but was care- 
fully repaued. It is seven feet long, and weighs twelve 
hundred pounds. The harmony of this glorious firont 
has been fearfully injured by restoration, and the doing 
over of the priceless mosaics by contract-work with due 
corrections to make them acceptable to modem taste. 
The original mosaics were begun in 1321. What they 
were may be seen at South Kensington, where is preserved 
the Nativity, which filled the tympanum of the right-hand 
door ; one of the most spontaneous and smiling expressions 
of early Italian art. ' The colour is exquisite, in parts 
defined and made glittering with gold, and again melting 
harmonies of pearl, amethyst, and aventurine green. 
Notice the fighting cats in the comer, omitted in the 
trade copy now in place. This panel, moreover, bears 
the signature of Orcagna, and the date. 











M -V 




Sienese art was especially important in the fields of 
sculpture and painting. Let us return to it for a moment 
to consider the latter. 

Even more perfect of its class than the cathedral is 
the Palazzo delta Signoria, and its special glory is its 


paintings. It was built in 1288-1309, and its slender, 
springing tower was added from 1338-79. As a town- 
hall it stands proudly with those of Florence and Bruges ; 
they are the three great municipal buildings of the 
world.* It is of brick, very simple in its parts, and it is 
difficult to say in what its power consists. The ground 
storey is formed by a row of pointed arches, then there 
are two stages of three-light windows, all alike, and a 
fourth storey in the middle, crowned by a fine battlement. 
The mast-like tower rises at one end. The inside is all 
glorious with paintings, which cover the walls like tapestiy. 
In the great Council Chamber Simone Martini, from I3i5> 
painted the ** Queen of Siena.^ A superbly designed 
Madonna is enthroned in front of tabernacle-work like an 
altar-piece, beneath a canopy upheld by attendant saints. 
To her, kneeling angels offer bowls of flowers, and beneath 
is an inscription in which she says to the citizens that 
good judgments delight her more than offerings of flowers, 
and that he who judges wrongfully will she condemn. On 
the opposite wall is the portrait, larger than life, of the 
war-leader of Siena, riding alone in a wide, dark land- 
scape, spotted over with castles. 

In the Sala della Pace, Ambrogio Lorenzetti, in 1337- 
1339 painted the most noteworthy series of civic paintings 
in any country. Here he represented the Government of 
Siena and allegories of the effects of good and bad 
government. In the midst of a series of single figures of 
the Virtues f sits an aged king or rather crowned Siena, to 

* The Town Palaces of Perugia, Todi, Como and others are hardly 
inferior ; the vast hall at Padua is magnificent. 

t Peace, Fortitude, Prudence on his right; Mercy, Temperance 
Justice on his left ; above him Faith, Love, and Hope. 


whom approach the chief citizens of Siena. On his right 
is enthroned Justice; above, Wisdom holds the scales; 
below is seated Concord with a big plane (!) for emblem. 
In the allegory of the results of Good Government is a 
detailed, and doubtless perfectly accurate, view of Siena 
itself with all the life of its streets, and beyond the walls 
are the occupations of the country. Hovering over the 
gate floats the figure of Securitas. One of the details is 
especially interesting to us : a house is being built and we 
see the scaffolding supported only by horizontal poles 
jutting out from the walls, and without any uprights. 

Simone Martini (c. 1 284-1344), and Ambrogio Loren- 
zetti {c. 1 285-1348), followed Duccio, the first of the 
great individualist painters. Bom about 1255, and 
living to 13 19, he himself, in 1302, painted a noble 
picture for the town palace.* In the work of Duccio, and 
even of Simone Martini, direct following of Byzantine 
originals is perfectly evident. A group of the Annuncia- 
tion, an enthroned Madonna, or an Angel, often appears 
to be taken directly fi-om some Greek mosaic or book 
painting: the whole scheme of composition is adopted 
from the Byzantine traditional treatments, as are also the 
methods of painting, figures painted on a dark ground, 
trees laid over dark ^^mats,*^ and so on. Indeed, panel 
pictures themselves began as Greek icons, and the custom 
of painting on gold grounds, which spread over Italy, 

* Some slight idea of these Italian Gothic paintings may be formed 
in the National Gallery before the " Coronation of the Virgin," by 
Lorenzo Monaco, which is as brilliant in colour as a French minia- 
ture^ and another "Coronation" assigned to the school of Giotto. 
There are excellent copies of the "Allegory of Government " on one 
of the staircases at South Kensington Museum. 


France and England, must have been taken over from 
gold-ground mosaics. Mr. Frothingham has shown that 
early in the thirteenth century many Greek artists were 
working in Italy, and that a series of paintings still exist 
at Subiaco, wrought about 1220, by two Byzantine artists, 
Conxolus and Stamatico. 

The Italian school of Gothic building — ^save for some 
examples, especially those in which a late ^^Cosmati"^ strain 
has become rigid and mean — almost perfectly balanced 
the romantic and intellectual factors. As compared with 
the finest Northern Gothic, its works have not the same 
springing structure and inspiration, but they seem to 
belong more to this world, and to be less remote from modem 
eyes. We must remember also that this style was only 
fully completed by paintings which for beauty and human 
expression have never been matched. The memory of the 
old basilicas entirely covered with paintings or mosaics 
was, in Italy, never lost in any new Gothic ideal, and one 
of the first conditions of a building was to provide broad 
spaces for continuous histories in colour. It was not that 
some selected buildings such as the Palazzo Pubblico of 
Siena, S. Francesco of Assist, the Arena Chapel at Padua, 
and the Spanish Chapel of Santa Maria Novella in 
Florence, were painted, but all walls were incomplete until 
they had received their proper stories or patterns. The 
walls of Sta. Maria Novella, Sta. Trinita, Sta. Croce, and 
Or San Michele, alike give indications of the necessary 
treatment of church interiors. 

One of the most beautiful interiors in Florence is a 
tiny square vaulted chamber, the Spexeria of Santa Maria 


Novella, with paintings of the Passion, said to be by 
Spinello Aretino, c. 1400. At the Arte deUa Lana you 
pass up a fine stone stair with a lion on the newel and an 
early Madonna on the walls, to a vaulted hall decorated 
with a symmetrical series of large single figures on a red 
ground, m tabernacles, all in fresco. In the Bigallo there 
is a small chamber completely painted. Here is a central 
picture of Misericordia protecting Florence, which is 
entirely sheltered by her mantle. The city, surrounded 
by its walls, shows a good view of the baptistery and 
other buildings, and on either hand is a crowd of suppli- 
cating people. There are a dozen other subjects in square 
compartments, one of which shows the orphans of the 
city being received at the Bigallo itself, at the existing 
door with its Madonna relief. The ceiling, heavily 
beamed and raftered, is painted with gay pattern-work of 
chevrons, chequers and bands of quatrefoils in white, 
black, red and green. The room is perfectly plain and 
square, but the painted walls and ceiling give out a certain 
stimulus to the imagination ; it is not a mere box but a 
precious coffer. 

The houses, not less than the public buildings, were 
adorned with their appropriate paintings. Of one 
traditional method of decorating a room there is a 
beautiful fourteenth-century example in the Villa Bardini 
outside Florence, to whidi it was removed from the 
Mercato Vecchio. Around the top of the walls are 
painted the heads of a cusped arcade. Below the level of 
the springing of these arches is a curtain of diapered stuff 
represented as if hanging in broad folds in front of the 
arcade. Showing above the curtain, the arch-spaces are 


filled with the foliage of orange and olive trees as if seen 
through the arches. At the side of a window of the room is 
the figure of a girl turning back the painted hangings. Over 
all is a large geometrical lattice pattern, in broad white 
lines, through the apertures of which is seen the curtain 
and the tree-tops. This last at once flattens the rest of 
the painting and gives it mystery, so that the whole 
becomes a fitting decoration for a room. A somewhat 
similar treatment, but later, and not so romantic, may be 
seen on the model of a room from the Palazzo Machiavelli 
at South Kensington. In other cases the painted hangings 
seemed as if woven with heraldic devices or diapered over 
with beasts or plants. 

Nor was this colour restricted wholly to interiors. The 
walls without were touched and accented here and there 
with gold and painting, as we have seen of the Palazzo 
Vecchio. Here would be a series of reliefs on coloured 
grounds like those at the Loggia dei Lanzi, in another 
place coats-of-arms and badges of the guilds. Some fronts 
were entirely painted like that of the Bigallo. In several 
places still remain old coloured shrines. Even the city 
gates were illuminated, to the out»ide with painted coats- 
of-arms, and within, in the tympana of the arches, with 
pictures. Inside the Porta Romana is an early Virgin 
enthroned,and at the Porta San Giorgio another, supported 
by St. George and St Lawrence. Above the city sparkled 
the golden mosaic of the front of San Miniato (Fig. 123). 

From early days the building style of Florence has had 
a character of balanced reasonableness which sets it apart 
even from neighbouring schools. The Romanesque work 



of tlie baptistery and San M iniato is already clear and 
large-minded, with nothing of Lombardic savagery, as, 
indeed, Vasari noticed. The Gothic style is equally 
measured, and the transition to the Renaissance was 
accomplished here with hardly any disruption of continuity ; 
indeed, the Riccardi and Strozzi Palaces, and even the 
Pitti Palace, are variations on the traditional style of 
which the Gothic Ferroni Palace is an example. 

Fig. 134. From incised stone slab, in the Cluny Museum, Paris. 

We have now followed the main currents of Mediaeval 
Art to the Eve of the Italian Renaissance ; to follow the 
period to its close in the West is beyond the limits of my 
task. Although the high day of that << Frenchness '' 
which is the essence of Grothic was over-past by the middle 



Face p. 296 


of the fourteenth century the change was slow, and lovely 
works were still being produced when an active propaganda 
was undertaken for the repudiation of the national arts, 
and the substitution for them of what was called the 
" True Antique Style.'* (See Plate 66.) 

I turn away from this short study with a sense of the 
necessary incompleteness of all history as a mere record of 
happenings. I am more content, however, to have tried to 
suggest the unity in diversity of the stream of art which 
flowed down the centuries, every age showing a different 
manifestation of one energy as the old tradition was ever 
new shaped by the need and experiment of the moment. 
If I may venture to draw out a lesson from the retrospect, 
it is that we, too, forgetting the past must press forward ; 
for in the future are hid the possibilities of many mighty 
schools of art as true and strong as the greatest of those 
that are gone. 


(A) Byzaniine Churches, p. 48. — ^The church of St. Irene, 
Constantinople, is in the main, I have no doubt, a work ot 
Justinian. It was founded by Constantine, and was rebuilt on 
a larger scale, Procopius says, by Justinian. In the eighth 
century it was injured by an earthquake, and Revoira assigns 
the present structure to that date. The originality of the 
scheme however — a basilica covered by two domes sustained by 
side-galleries, and the large freedom of the handling — marks it 
as of the sixth century. The scheme may be described as 
being made up of the central dome and western arm of the 
Apostles' Church (Fig. 27), the apse opening directly to the 
east of the larger of the two domes. In 1881 the apse was 
cleared out, and marble benches like those of Torcello were 
found around it From a photograph it appears that there 
are monograms of Justinian over some of the capitals. 

(B) ThePalaceqfMashita, p. 60. — ^The most important parts 
of this monument have been brought to Berlin, and are now 
amongst the treasures of the new Kaiser Friedrich Museum, 
Berlin, not yet opened. From a short account of the ruins 
by Prof. £. Sachou, in Die Woche, May 30, 1903, 1 gather that 
the most recent German opinion is that it was built for one 
of the Princes of the Gassanides, a south Arabian tribe of 
Bedouin, who ruled the trans-Jordan country in the century 


before Mahomet. They were in the service of the Emperors of 
Constantinople, and protected the frontier against the Persians ; 
they were grtst builders, and employed Greek artists. Their 
castles are frequently mentioned by the early Arab poets. 
Mashita is one of these palaces, built in the fifth or sixth 
century. Some inscriptions have not yet been fully made 
out. Thus far the view set out on p. 60 is justified. 

(C) Visigolkic Art, S^., p. 130. — There are only a few 
remains in Spain which belong to the Visigothic period. 

Every student of art knows the splendid votive crowns in 
the Cluny Museum, one of which bears the name of the Visi- 
gothic King Recesvintus. Now the church of St. John de Bonos 
Cerrato, Palencia, is dated by an inscription of this same king 
set up in 661. It is a short-aisled basilica, with a square 
chancel and a large west porch ; there are two small square 
transeptal projections opening opposite the east bay of the 
nave-arcade, which is of three bays. From the transepts opened 
two chapels to the east. The chancel arch and that of the 
porch are of horseshoe form, and the chancel is covered by a 
barrel vault, in continuation of its arch. The columns are 
monolithic, and the capitals rude Corinthian. This church, 
with its projecting transepts, is distinctly cruciform. 

Again, the church which Enlart calls the most ancient in 
N. W. France, that of La Bourse, near Bethune, probably of the 
tenth century, is also cruciform. 

The early Romanesque churches of Romain-Motier and 
Payeme in Switzerland are both barrel-vaulted. 

(D) Romanesque in France, p 132. — The exterior of the 
choir of the fine late Romanesque church of St. Martin des 
Champs, Paris, has lately been ^'discovered" in an entirely 
authentic state, by the removal of buildings which hemmed 
it in. It has an apse, with double circumscribing aisle and 
radiating chapels, all rib-vaulted within. One of the most 


interesting features of the exterior is that the roof of the outer 
aisle of the apse was carried continuously round by means of 
arches springing across the re-entering angles of the chapels. 
The revelation of this piece of original work in the crowded 
streets of Paris made it all the more striking. I suppose its 
validity is abolished by this time, in the usual way of 
<* restoration." 

The extraordinary church of Loches deserves a fuller des- 
cription than that on p. 182. At the east end are three parallel 
apses, these and a crossing surmounted by a tower and stone 
spire are normal, except that the transept roofs " lean-to " 
against the lantern, which is covered internally by an eight- 
sided dome. The nave is wider than the crossing, and is of 
two large square bays of the Angevin type, without aisles. 
Each of these bays is covered with a low octagonal pyramid 
rising from squinches. fieyond to the west is another bay 
vaulted low under a belfry tower, which with its spire rises 
as high as the central steeple. Still further west is a square 
porch as large as one of the nave bays and cross-vaulted ; in it 
is a finely sculptured west door beautifully coloured. This 
strange church is doubtless an adaptation of the domed 
churches of which there are said to be forty or fifty existing 
in and around Perigueux. The oldest part is the two-bayed 
nave, which was probably at first completed with only an 
apse to the east. It is probably later than St. Hilaire, Poitiers, 
completed c. 1 130. On Le Puy see Thiollier. 

(£) Durham and OgivcU VatUU, p. 13a. — Having lately had 
an opportunity of re-examining the vaults of Durham I 
feel no doubt of the accuracy of the view set forth by Canon 
Greenwell and Mr. Bilson. The ogival vaults of the choir 
aisle (c. X093) are clearly original. Moreover it is certain 
that the high vault of the choir was vaulted from the first ; 
traces of it are quite evident on the clerestory walls ; the 


clerestoiy windows are not centred with the triforlum below^ 
bat as required for the " lunettes *' of the vaults ; substantial 
buttressing arches remain across the aisles. It is almost as 
certain that this high vaults completed before 1104^ was 
ogwal; the tall elliptical form of the lunettes shows this, so 
also does the subdivision of the apse by attached piers, in 
comparison with the similar treatment in the chapter-house ; 
indeed, that the central span had ribs may be deduced from 
the fact that the narrow spans of the adjoining aisles are 
ribbed, for, as Enlart points out, ogtvef were augmentations, and 
were sometimes put to main spans, while the side spans were 
left without C' Region Picard, &c"). The high vault of the 
nave which still remains, and has ribs, agrees in the form of 
the lunettes over the windows with the choir vault, and it is 
stayed by buttress arches over the aisles in just the same way, 
except that those of the nave vrith a little advance are quad- 
rants instead of semicircles. The main transverse arches of 
the nave vault are pointed, Durham, in its severe rationality, 
unity, and scale, is an altogether extraordinary work. The 
whole plan was laid out by some great master, and then it 
seems to have been carried to a close with hardly an alteration. 
Amongst early churches with ogival vaults may be noted 
Cormac's Chapel in Ireland, said to have been built in 1127. 
(F) PloM of Churches, p. 167. — A perfect example of the 
simple cross plan on which Angers Cathedral was rebuilt is 
furnished by the niins of the Abbey of Dou6 not far away, 
llie plan of La Trinity, Angers, is of a still finer simplicity ; 
the nave is covered by three large sexpartite vaults, plus a 
half compartment at the west ; on either side open seven 
semicircular niches in the wall-mass, from the nave to the east 
opens a narrow-apsed choir, with apsed chapels on either 
hand. Another typical plan of masterly simplicity is that of 
the Dominican church at Toulouse, which has a double nave, 


and a single apse opening from it, the vault of which is there- 
fore supported by a central pier, and resembles half an English 
chapter-house. The old Dominican churches of Paris and Agen 
also had double naves, and nothing better could be contrived 
for the assembling of big congregations before a preacher. 
Churches with square eastern terminations like the later form 
of Laon Cathedral are not so infrequent in France as is some- 
times supposed. The abbey church of St Martin in the 
same city is another example, and it is quite common in 
churches of lesser rank. A good example is furnished by 
the beautiful choir of Montrieul-sur-Bois, near Paris (c. 1200). 
The details of this work have considerable resemblance, in 
small, to Notre Dame itself. The columns of the arcade are 
all small monoliths, only 16 inches in diameter, carrying 
boldly projecting capitals, yet this arcade supports a vault of 
large sexpartite compartments, the main and intermediate 
ribs being alike carried by a triple vaulting shaft like Notre 
Dame (see p. 201), which, indeed, has affinities to quite a 
group of neighbour churches (see Bull. Mon., 1903, p. 358). 

The Friar's Church at Tours (c. 1260) is just one span 
x6o ft. long, with a big tracery-window to the east. 

(G) Spires, p. 182. — Dozens of French churches of lesser 
rank have fine early spires. I may mention Beaulieu by 
Loches, Limay by Mantes, Notre Dame of Etampes, Langeais 
on the Loire, Bemiers in Normandy, S. P^re sous V^elay, and, 
above all, the superb steeple of St. Aubin at Angers. I have 
spoken on p. l6S of transeptal towers ; Bordeaux Cathedral 
was prepared for four such towers, two of which were 
completed with high stone spires. 

(H) Sculpture, p. 219. — It may be stated as a general rule 
that sculpture and ornamental carving developed by translating 
paintings and book decorations into relief. There is a pattern 
made up of what I may call a checquer of little semicircles' 


opposed in pairs, which is found in Carlovingian painted books 
and is a favourite late Romanesque carved ornament. A 
'' Greek Key '* pattern treated as a folded ribbon has a 
similar origin, and foliage forms in carving follow painted 
models. Some of the very finest Gothic ornamental carving 
in France carries on the tradition of the classical scroll pattern 
in exquisite variation. On the lintel of the late Romanesque 
N. door of Bourges is an acanthus scroll, which would hardly 
be out of place at Spalato ; then through a series we can trace 
this bold meander of foliage at Sens, Rouen, and Notre Dame. 
At Amiens there is a band of foliage of another type, but of 
incomparable boldness and beauty, which runs along under 
the triforium. 

Sculptured doorways of the type of the Royal Doors 
at Chartres are found at Le Mans, Provins, Etampes, Angers, 
Bourges, St. Loup de-Naud, Notre Dame at Chdlons, Issey, 
&c. (see Bull. Mon., 1903). 

The exquisite life-size statue of Adam in the Quny Museum 
shows full mastery over the nude. The statue of Charles V. 
in the Louvre is clearly a vivid likeness. 

Paris held, 1 believe, the supreme place as a school of 
sculpture from the middle of the twelfth century. 

(I) Sailpiure in England, p. 235. — Except the King and 
Queen (Solomon and Saba) at Rochester there is little 
transitional sculpture in England. There are a few early 
tomb effigies in very fiat relief; but many of these, especially 
those of a hard black stone, were, I believe, imported from 
Toumay and other centres. Our earliest effigy in full relief 
is probably that of King John at Worcester, and this follows 
the style of Richard's effigies at Fontevrault and Rouen. 
Step by step French fashions were followed in England, the 
*' weepers " of Fig. 93 are first found in English tombs of 
c 1300. The great array of sculptures at Wells distinctly 


show close knowledge of French prototypes. By comparison 
of the pair of central figures of a King and Queen at Wells with 
similar pairs at Amiens, Chartres, and Reims, I have been able 
to show that, like these, the Wells figures represent Solomon 
and Saba. 


^ Indicates figure in t4xL Names of authors quoted in italics 

Aachen, Dom of, 3, 4, 90, descriptloD 

of, 131, »eq. ; plan of, *I22 
AbberUle, "over-Gothic" of, 188 
AbingdoD^double-ended church of, 89 n. 
Akhpat, ribtwd vaulu of, iii 
Akhtamar, church of, 75 
Alexaudria, school of ivory earring 

^ •'. 35. 56 

AmieiJti, Cathedral of, 14a ; vault, 157 : 
Bsctiou of nave, *i6o; wall, 16 z ; 
triforium arcades, 171 ; clerestory, 
X73 ; aisle windows, ^173 ; north 
window, 174; triforium window, 
175* *i76 ; screen, 183 ; description 
X>f, 208, teq. ; sculptures of, 226, aeq. ; 
masons of, 244, 258 

Anabat, Church of, ^jj 

Andrea Pisano, xoo, 286 

Ansrcrs, Cathedral of, proportions of, 
168; plan of, *i69; description of, 
213. 314 

Ani, Church of, 74, 78 

Antioch, Kavcuna derived from, 53 

Amtoniadett 46, 49 

Apses, origfin of, 16; transverse, 72, 
•73* 84, 103, 128, 148, •149, *iso, 
285 ; niched, 93, •94, *95 ; counter, 
103, 127 

Apsldal chapels, •165, •166. *i&7 

Arab-Bysantine School, 4, 66 

Arches, elliptic, •35, 36 : pointed, 31, 
78, 104, 106, 133, 140, 158, 159 

Architecture, deHuition of, 12 

Aroutph, 27, 28, 29, 86 

Aries, sculptures of, 218 

Armenian-Byzantine, 67, 68, 69 
characteristics of, 73, 76 ; construe* 
tion of, 78 
Amolfo da Cambio, 28a, 284 
Arnsburg, Abbey of, 275 
Arms, tabernacle for relics, 148 
Art, an index of history, i ; a transi- 
tion fVom common tradition to indi- 
vidual realism, 8 
Asia Minor, characteristics of school 

of, 4a» 89 
Assisi, Church of San Francesco, 278 
Atliclney, cruciform church at, 90 
Athens, monastciy of Daphne, 68, *69, 
Z16 ; church of St. Micodemus, 68 ; 
cathedral of, 78 
Athos (Mount), church of Protaton, 
67; church of Tatopedl, 69, ♦79; 
tria]widal church plans at, 72; 
church of Iviron, 79 ; the Laura, 80 
Auxerrc, Cathedral of, window ot 
♦171; description of, 303; west 
portal, 231 

Baalbec, 10, 15, 30, 62 

Bamberg:, towers of, 275 

Bauckaly C, 243, 253 

Bayet^ M., 126 

Beauvais, Cathedral of, old nave, 124; 
flying buttre«es,x59 ; apsidal chevet^ 
165; description of, 210, 211; St. 
Etlonne, 192 ; St. Lucien, 244 

Belgium, Gothic Art in, 374 

Bemay, 131 


',87, 117 



Bethlehem, Chnrch of the Nativity, *57, 
Btq. ; eroee-type, 87 ; like Plaa, 103 

MUan, 13a, 151 

BinblrUUne, bMUica at, 81 

Bitonto, 118 

Borgo San Donnino, Lombardie rtyle 
at, 113 

Bourgres, Cathedral of, plan of, 163; 
apnldal cheret, 165 : window traeerj, 
17a; roof of chapels, 182; jube, 
183; candlestick, 184; description 
of, 909, ug. ; sculptores of, 230, teg, 

Bralane, church of St. Tvcd at, tower, 
151 ; plan, *z65. z66 

Brickwork— In Ckmstantinople, 36, 68 ; 
brick cborches, 79; ribs of, 112; 
Bel^n use of, 975 

Brlcksworth, basllican church at, Z2i 

Brlndisi, San Benedetto, ogival vaults 
of, 113 

Brioudc, Bomanesque church at, 130 

Brockhaus^ 69 

Brouie-work, Greek origin of, 116 : 
gates of San Paolo outside the walla, 
116 ; at Aachen, 123, ^eg. ; Othonian, 
125 ; brouEe working school of Huy 
and Dinant, 126, 2x6, 274 ; in German 
churches, 128 ; at Onrieto, 290 

Brossett 78 

Brown^ Prgf. Baldwin^ 84 

Bruges, Notre Dame, 274; town hall, 

Bnrgoe, Cathedral of, 270 

Butler, 94 

Buttress, flying, 139, 159 ieq,i at 
Bourgea, 210 ; at ije Mans, 213 

Byland Abbey, z6o, 265 

Byzantine Art, 5, 6 ; B. carTlngs, 16 ; 
B. A. in the reign of Justinian, 32 ; 
B. building, 36, 38: B. church ar- 
rangement, 48 $«q. ; B. organic 
work, 57 ; course of B. A. to be 
traced in Bavenna, 51 ; B. candle- 
stick, 59 ; B. palaces, 6z teq. ; B. A. 
in Borne, 63 : later B. A. 66 uq. ; 
dissemination of B. A., 72 ; B. mo- 
saics (fee Mosaics) ; Byzsntesque, 80^ 
119, 121, 130 

Byzantine masons and artists, Tlrdatea, 
Z12, Allisios, 61, Staurachlos, zi6, 
Conxolus, 293, Stamatico, 293 

Caen, St. Nicholas, Z3Z, Z82; Holy 
Trinity, Z3Z, Z85 ; St. Stephen, Z3Z, 

Cahon, paintings on cupola, 249 
Gairo, stone friezes, ^33; ivory panel, 

*34t 35 ' TBooasiv/b of Amr, 66 
Calabria. Roooella di Squillaee, 87, *88 
Cambral, Cathedral of, Z48, Z63 : plan 

of apse, •249 
Canterbury, Cathedral of, double-ended 
type originally, 8911, Z27; flylngr 
buttresses, Z59 ; resemblance to Sena, 
Z99 ; description of, 265, aeg. 
Capitals, Old Cairo cap. ^34 ; types of, 
38. 39. Vo. Vi* 42 ; monograms on, 
44» 54* *55. 95 : ToreeUo eape, 92 ; 
Onrieto caps, 288 
Carlovlngian Art^ Z2Z, Z24 
Carter, JoAv, Z33, Z39 
Carthage, pavement at, 36, ^37 
Casamare, Cisterelan abbey of, 276 
Castles, Gothic, Z38; Syrian, Z38, 139 ; 

Coucy, Z38 : royal builders ol^ Z47 
Cattatuo, 64, 92 

Caudebec, mason's tomb at^ ^257 
Cadglia, 87 

Chaalis, Cistercian abbey of, Z49, ^150 
ChAlons, Notre Dame at, Z64, Z84, 203; 

Cathedral of, •Z74 
Chars, church at, plan, *z62, Z63 
Chartres, Cathedral ot flying buttresses, 
159 ; towers, Z63 ; ** design " of, z68 ; 
apse windows, Z70; clerestory win- 
dows, Z7Z ; rose windows, X73 ; 
stained glass, •Z77, *X78, •Z79, z8o ; 
juM, Z83 ; vaulting rib, z86 ; descrip- 
tion of, 203, teq. ; west front, '205 ; 
sculptures of, 218, 2Z9, 222; dial- 
bearing angel, 228 ; mason's window, 
Chevets, Z64, Z65, 173 ; at Le Xans, 213 
Chichester, 268 
Chios, 68, *69 
Choirs, Z82, $eq, 
Chouy, A^ 3Z, 44, 49, zzz 
Christ, early representation of, *3 
Cistercian Order of St. Bernard, Z46 
Clermont, basilica at, Z2o 
CVtrmoiU'Qanwayiy 59 
Cluny, Monastery of, Z30, Z46 
CoccJU, 99 n 

Coire, Cathedral of, 272, •273, •274 
Cologne, St. Mary in the Capitol, 128 ; 
Holy AposUes, 128; Cathedral of, 

ai4» 275 
Comadni masters, zx4 
Como, San Fedele, Z03; town hall, 

991 n 



Oompostella, St. James of, 130 : gloria 
doors at, az8; lintel Inscription at, 258 

Coturo, 22, 31 

Conqnes, 130 

Constantinople — artistic capital of the 
world, 3, 119 ; Sta. Sophia at, 2, 28, 

35. 39. 40. 44* »«ffi 49. 69, 70. "2; 
coustmetlon In C, 36; St. Mary of the 
Fountain, 38 ; Basilica of St. John, 
4a ; Sts. Sergios and Bacchns, •43, 
44, 49, 54 ; Holy Apostles. •47, 48, 
94 ; Chora, 49 ; Palace of Belisarlns, 
68; Great Palace, 62: Kalender's 
Hosqne, 66 ; 8. M. Famma-Karlstos, 
97 ; St. Irene, Appendix A ; QuUds, 

Coptic Art — MS Egypt 

Corbcll, 218 

Cordova, iii 

Corns, 14 

Cosmatl work, 73, 104 115, 282, •283, 

Coney, 138 

Contances, cathedral of, 185, 315 

Cavelf 79 

Crete, St. Tltns, 83 

Cross-chnrches, 83, aeq.; cross-font, •87 

Cyprus, church of St. Barnabas, 129 

Damascus, mosque of, 4,66; colonna- 
ded streets of, 10 ; Golden Gate of, 15 

Dehio and Van Bezold^ 22, 31, 58, 62, 

JHdot {GilU\ and S^gOe, 243 

Didron^ 69, 226, 261 

DietUqfoiy 62 

Dijon, 126 ; sculptures at, 235 ; window 
at, 267 

Doclca, CliUToh at, *83 

Dodona, Chnrch at, *i4, 17 

Domes, Minerva Medlca, Borne, iz ; 
Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, 28 ; Sts. 
Serginsand Bacchus, ConstAutlnople, 
44 : Sta. Sophia, 44 ; Holy Apostles, 
Const. 48 ; Galla Placldia, Bavenna, 

Domed basilicas, 81, 83; baptistery, 
Florence, loi ; cathedral, Florence, 

Domfront, Church at, 131 

Dommartln, Church at, 95 

Duoclo, Siencse artist, 292 

Durandy (?., 243 

Durham, Cathedral ot 2; vaulting, 
132, Appendix (E) ; nine altArs, 166 

Eably Christian Art, development oi 
•3, 'lO* 

Eastern Art, Hellenistic 15 ; free and 
varied, 15 ; influence upon the West, 

Egypt, Byzantine Art in, •33, •34; 
red and white monasteries, 17 n, 36, 
94 ; Coptic origin of Arab art» 66 ; 
St. John of Antinoe, 94, •95 ; Ar- 
ment, 94 ; Barkal, 82 

Enlart^ 58, 15T, 270 

English Gothic, 136; transltioii to 
262, uq. 

English Bomanesque, 132, teq, 

English masons and artists ; Walter of 
Durham, 243; William of Canter- 
bury, 266 ; Master Henry of West- 
minster, 269 ; Master John of Glou- 
cester, 269 ; Master Bobert of Bever- 
ley, 269 ; John of St. Albans, 269 

Kssen, bronze candlestick, 125 

Etschmiodsin, Church of St. Gregory 
the Illuminator, 31, 73, ^74 ; cath»- 

Falatse, castle, 138 

Faquiez^ Q^ 255 

Felibfen, 243 

Fiesole, Cathedral of, 97 ; Badia, 103 

Flemish masons, H^zelon of Liege, 
130 ; Ganzon, 130 

Fleury, de, 49, 56, 58, 83, 88, 104 

Florence, San Miuiato, 97, *98, loz, 
103, 107, 295 ; San Lorenzo, 97, 99, 
286; Baptistery, 97, 99, 102, *288; 
Santa Reparata, 97, 99 ; Santa Maria 
del Flore, loi, 161, 284 ; Giotto*8 
campanile, zoz, 385; San Jacopo 
sopr 'Amo, Z03, Bishops* chapel, 
103 ; San Stcfauo, Z03 ; Santl Apos- 
toll, Z03; Sta. Maria Novella, 276^ 
280, 293; Santa Trinita, 280, 293; 
Sta. Croce, 281, 283 ; Bargello, 281 ; 
Palazzo Veochio, 281 ; Oguissanti* 
286 ; Or San Michele, 386, 287, 293 ; 
Ponte Vecchio, 287; Loggia del 
Lanzi, 287, 295; Spezerta di Sta 
Maria Novella, 293. aeq. ; BigallOb 
294; Hall of the Arte della Lana, 
294 ; Villa Bardinl, 294 ; Palazzo 
Machiivelli, 295; Porta Bomana, 
295 ; Porta San Giorgio, 295 ; cha- 
racteristics of Florentine style, 103, 
295, »eq, 

Fontevrault, 234 



Fonts, cmcifomi, 86, •87 
FoBiianova, monaBterj of, 276 
Fonntftios Abbey, 166, 263, 265 
Franck-Oberoeapaeh^ Dr., 231 
French Romanesque, 129, geq, 
Frothingham, Prqf., 116, 293 

GiiiLLARD, chfttean, 138, 147 

Oarrucci, 36, 53 

Gaul, 120 

Oayet, 8i 

Gelati, conycnt chnrch of, 77 

Genera, CSatliedral of, 271 

Gennan Romaneeque, cliaraoteristlcs 
of, 127, aeq. 

German Gothic, 275 

German masons — odo of Motz, 121 ; 
Erwln von Stelnbach, 259 

Oervasej 265 

Giotto, 278, 279, 285, 286 

Gisors, castle of, 138 

Gloacester, bronze candlestick, 125; 
Cathedral of, 132 

Gothic Art, rise of, 5 ; exclnsfrelj 
Western, but nourished by the East, 
7; origfln of name, 135; French- 
ncBS of, 136; inadequate definition 
of, 137 ; castle Gothic, 138 ; 
date of origin, 140, seq.; Gothic 
architecture, 141, seq. ; an architec- 
ture of towns and guilds, 144; in- 
fluence of religions orders upon, 
146, 276 ; routes and speed of dis- 
tribution, 152, 153 ; ** Over-Gothic," 
188, teq. ; comparison of French and 
English Gothic, 191 ; progress of in 
North France, 192 ; French Gothic, 
I3S» **«• ; Kngllsh Gothic, 262, acq. ; 
Spanish Gothic, 270 ; Swiss Gothic, 
271, seq.; Flemish Gothic, 274; 
German Gothic, 275 ; Italian Gothic, 
276, aeq. 

Gothic artists and master masons; 
Jean Pepin, 234; Jean d* Arras, 234 ; 
Andr^ Beauncven, 234, 241 ; Robert 
do Launay, 235 ; Jean Ic Bouteiller, 
23S» 251 : Jean de Cambray, 235 ; 
Etienue d*Auxerre, 238 ; Claux 
Sluter, 235; Hennequin de Liege, 
235 ; I'hilippus Rizutl, 238; Bvrard 
d'Orleans, 238 : Villars de Hoone- 
court, 238, 248, 249; Jean Coete, 
938 ; Gerard d'Oridans, 239, 242 ; 
Jean de Bruges, 239; Jean d*Or- 
16ins, 24Z : Jan Tan Eyck, 941 ; Jean 

Fonqnet, 241 ; Wormboldand Odon, 
243; Robert de Luzarches, 245: 
Thomas de Cormont, 245 ; Regnanlt, 
245 ; Hugh Libergiers, •246, 247, 
255 : Robert de Coucy, 247 ; Jehav 
1« Loup, 248 ; Gauchier de Reims, 
24S ; Bernard de Soissons, 248 ; 
Jehan d'Orbals, 248; Pierre de 
Corbie, 249; Jean de Cheiles, 250: 
Pierre de Cbelles, 250; Jean Rary, 
251 ; Pierre de Montreull, 251 ; 
Kudos de Montreuil, 251, ^252: 
Gnillaumc de St. Fatu, 253 ; Ray- 
mond du Temple, 253, 256 ; Alexan- 
dre de Bomval, 253 ; Martin Cam- 
biche, 253: Jean Vast, 253; Jean 
d'Andell, 253; Ingelram, 254: 
Durand, 254 ; Gautier de St. Hil- 
atrc, 255 ; Jean Dair, 255 ; Clement 
do Chartres, 255 ; Uerebrecht of 
Cologne, 243; Gulllaume Ijetellier, 
257 ; Master Matthew (SpainX 258 ; 
Petrus of Rome, 260, 283 ; Oderlcua 
of Rome, 260; William of Sens, 265 

Grenoble, 120 

Oaelly 90 

Guilds, In Constantinople, 64, teq.; 
Comadni Guild, 114; Lombard 
Guilds, 127 ; Mediaeval Guilds, 144, 
»eq. ; Guild windows, i8x ; Gothie 
Masons* Guilds, 255 

Heixenesque Style, 4, 32, 34 ; 

Egypto-Hellenesque, 35 ; Byzantine- 

Hellcnesque, 67 
Hellenistic Art, 15 
Herimarm qf T&umajfy 2X6 
Hexham, round-tower church of, 90 
HUdesheim, bronzes, 125; painted 

ceiling, 128 
Honnecourt, YilUn de, 158, 159, 164, 

166, 170, 173, 189, 195,* 238, 248, 

Howell, James, 95 

Ibun, Cistle of, 139 

lie de France, architecture of, 113, 

Z38, seq, ; influences in Its develop- 

ment, 148 
Illumination, 242 
Ireland, round towers, 121 ; Cormac's 

chapel, 133 
Isauria, capital In church at, *4z 
Issolre, example of rarliice deeort* 

tiou, 130 



Italo-Byzantine, 92 

Italian Romaneaqne, 91, aeg. 

Italian Oothlc, 276 seq. ; Italian Gothic 
Gothic ** with a diflorence,'* 278 ; 
character of, 293; completed by 
painting', 293 

Italian artists and masons : Master 
Michele, 97; Fra Jaoopo, 100: 
Andrea Tafl, 100; ApoHonio, 100; 
Andrea Pisano, 100, 286, 289 ; Plero 
dl Jacopo, 100; Boschetto, 104; 
Bainaldo, 104 ; Diotlsalri, 105 ; 
Bouanns, 105, 118 : Goidetto, 107 ; 
Cosmos, Ac, 115; Vunilctti, 115; 
Barisanns, 118; Fletro LomUirdc, 
127 : Giotto, 278, seq, ; Arnolfo dl 
Cambio, 282, 284 : Pictro Cavallinf, 
266 ; Francesco Talentl, 286, 287 ; 
Bmuellcschi, 161, 286; Neri dl 
Florarantl, 287; Benoi dl Clone, 
287; Orca^a, 285, 289: Lorenzo 
Vaitano, 289 ; Simono Martini, 291 ; 
Ambrog^o Lorenzettl, 292; Duceio, 

Ivories, Alexandrian, 35; Bishop's 
Chair, Bavenna, 56 ; panel, 72 ; dis- 
semioation of, 72, 216; Othonian, 125 

Jacob's Well, Clmrch at, 86 

Jsrrow, 121 

Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock, 4, 66 ; 
Akn mosque, 4, 66 ; Holy Sepulcbie, 
31)1 '^•i *26, ^27, *29 ; capitals, 40 

Jervanlx, Abbey, 265 

Jonarre, Church at, 120 

Jamieges, 2, 131 

Kef, basilica, *82, 95 
Kerak, Castle of, 139 
Eerouan, Mosque oi, *39, 4P 
JCondakov, 67 
Koutais, Church of, 78 
JTrottf, 22, 31, 58 

LABTSI5TH, in Amiens Catbodral, 245 

Landanij 64 

LanfftoHf Douglas^ 287 

Laon, Cathedral of: plan, 150; 
Norman influence, 151 ; flying 
buttresses, 159 ; towers, 163 : cloisters 
171 ; glass, *i8z ; west front, 184 ; 
sculptures, 221, 228 ; St. Martin's, 
147 ; towers, 164 ; sculptures, 222 ; 
Bishop's Palace, 198, 222 ; Templars' 
Church, 167, *i68 

Lasteyrie, 133, 218 

Lausanne, Caclie<lralof, painted statues, 

232 ; description of, 271, ^272 
Leon, Cathedra] of, 271 
Le Puy, Church of, 130 | 
L^vre-FontaliBy 192 
Libergiers, Hugh, *246, 247 
Liege, bronze font at, 216 
Liget, St. Jean, 166, 238 
Lincoln, Cathedrnl of, St. Hugh's 

Choir, 160 ; eastern Umb, 167, ♦168 ; 

rose window, 168 
Liptius, 81 

Lisienx, Cathedral of, 213 
Loches, Castle of, 138; Cathedral of, 

182 ; Appendix D. 
Lombardic Art, 91, 92, 108, •113, 114 
Lombardic influence, 98, 105, 107, 126; 

dispersion of, 127 
London—Holy Trinity, Aldgate, 133 ; 

Tower, 147 
Lorenzetti, Ambrogio, 292 
Lorsch, Abbey of, 124 
Lucca, San Michele, •laS, vyj; InUys, 

Lunch, H. F. A, 73, 75, 78 
Lyons, Cathedral of, piers, 156 ; mould- 
ings, •186 

Madeba, mosaic at, 29 

3f ainz, Cathedral of, 127 

MdU^ Emile, 219, 221, 223, 226 

Malmesbury, Abbey of, 133 

Le Mans, Cathedral of, apsidal chevet, 
165 ; buttrenes, 213 ; portal, 218 

Mantes, Cathedral of, plan, 162 ; west 
front, 184 ; description of, 201 

Mantz, P., 242 

Marble incrustations, Minerva Medica, 
Borne, II ; Santa Sabina, Borne, 20; 
a Boman gift to Christian Art, 22 ; 
Byzantine, 49; at Parcnso, 56; at 
Bethlehem, 58: St. Mark's, Venice, 
95; San Miniato, Florence, 98; 
baptistery, Florence, loi 

Marble masonry, Constantinople, 36; 
Pisa Cathedral, 104; Siena Cathe- 
dral, 277 ; Florence campanile, 285 

Martini, Simone, 291 

Mashlta,Palaceof,»6i,62. Appendix 

Masons, their position, 243, «egr., 256^ 
•258; tombs of, •118, *243, •245, ♦254, 
♦267; inscriptions to, 258, •aei ; 
drawings of, ♦260 



Msuriae, Church of, 130 

MerinUcy Proiper^ 142 

MerreUy Dr^ 62 

MeungB, Church ot 150 

Mi€klethwait€y 83 

Milan, San Lorvnzo, 31 ; Church of the 
ApoBtles, 86 ; 8t. Satyrus, 90 ; Sant* 
Ambrog^lo, 108, 109, *iio 


Modena, piUar of crypt, *ii3 

Mommerty 21 

Monasteries, St. Catherine, Sinai, 60 ; 
White and Red Monasteries, Egypt, 
61 ; St. Gall, 124; Cluny, 130 

Monkirearmonth, Cliurch ot 121 

Monograms, 44, 54, *sS* S7y 64^ 73' 79* 95 

Monolitliic Culnmns, 182 

Mons, Church at, 166 

MorUe^ Robert de, 199 

Morlenyal, Church at, 154 

jifoorc, Pro/". 137, I57«, 201 

Mosaic, Minerva Medica, Rome, 11 ; 
St. Peter's, Rome, 18 ; Sta. Sabina, 
Rome, 20 ; Sia. Constautia, Rome, 22, 
ieq. ; Sta. Pudentia, Rome, 24 ; Holy 
Apostles, Constantinople, 48 ; Salo- 
nica, 50, 71; Ravenna, 51, aeg.; 
Farenzo, 57; Bethlehem, 59; Sinai, 
60; Jerusalem, 66; St. Luke's, 
Phoels, 69 ; Daphne, 69 ; Sta. Sophia, 
Const., 70 ; Sta. Sophia Salonica, 71 ; 
•* Parcel-mosaic," 72, 104; Vatopedl, 
79 ; Byzantine mosaics inRome, 64 ; 
St. Prassede, Rome, 64 ; Torcello, 93 ; 
St. Mark's, Venice, 95; Baptistery, 
Florence, 100 ; Sicily, 117 ; Aachen, 
123 ; Orvieto, 290 

Mouldings, Byzantine, 96; Gothic. 
•186, •187 

Murano, 87, 96, 97 

Kakteb, roof of church at, 120 

Naumberg, towers of church at, 275 

NeusB, St. Quirinus at, 128 

Niccolo Pisano, 279 

Nicomedia, Church at, 16 

Norman School, 5, no, 131; influence of, 
151 ; mouldings, ^187 

Norrey, Church at, 182, 186 

North Africa, 32, 90 

Norwich, Cathedral of, 133 

Noyon, Cathedral of, early Gothic 
type, 148; trlforium gallery, 151, 
171 ; construction, 163 ; mouldings, 
186, *i87; description of, 192, Beg. 

Nyssa, St Gregory's Church at, •SSr 

Ogival style; progjeaslTe stagos of. 
Transitional ogival. Pointed ogfivaU 
Counter arched ogival, and Complete 
ogival, 140. {See Vaults) 

Opus Alexandrinum, X14, 115, 116 

Orcagna, 287 

Orl^nsville, basilica at, 16 

Orvieto, Cathedral of, 287, $eq. 

0$tien»iy Leone^ 64 

Othonian Art, 124, 125, 128 

Otranto, Church at, 117 

Ourscamp, Abbey of, 159, ^172 

Oviedo, Church at, 129 

Padua, Town Hall ot 291 n ; Arena 
Chapel, 293 

Painting, Byzantine, 49 ; San Clemente, 
Rome, 63, 64; San Picro a Grado, 
103 ; Early Romanesque, 121 ; Ger- 
man, 128; French, ^234, 236, teq^ 
243 ; Italian Gothic at Assisi, 278 ; 
at Pisa, 280 ; at Siena, 2901, aeg. ; 
Byzantine influence on, 292 

Palaces, Roman-Byzantlnc, 61, 62, 68 ; 
Florentine, 296 

Palmyra, 10, 15, 62 

Parenao, capitids at, 39, seg. ; descrip- 
tion ot 56 ; disposition ot 99 

Paris, Basilica of St. Peter and St 
Paul, 120; Ndtre Dame, trlforium 
gallery, 151 ; pUm, 163, *20O, Appen- 
dix (F) ; rose window, •175 ; outer 
ahile root 182 ; jtUd, 183 ; west front, 
184; portal firont, 185; description 
ot 199, 9eg. ; sculptures ot 225, 226 ; 
colour, 232; choir screen, 235: masons 
of, asoseg,; St. Germain des Pres, fly- 
ing buttresses, 159; tower, 164; mason 
ot25i ; Sainte Chapelle, construction, 
i6z ; window traceiy and glass, 174, 
180; altar canopy, 183; view ot 
*202 ; mason of, 251 ; St. M«rti& 
dcs Champs, vaulting, ^170; St. 
Jaques aux P6lerins, statnes ot 235 

Parma, Baptistery ot loz; Cathedral 
ot 103 

Paul the SHentiarfft 44, 46, 49 

Pavements, 36, *37, 72, 102, 114, 116 

Pavla, San Mlchele, zo8 

Perigcuz, St. Front, 129 

Perigord, School ot 129 

Perrot and ChipieZy 62 



fenAtLy 67, 78 

Penigta, Town Hall, 391 n 

Riocfti, Charch of St. Luke, 68, 116 

Pisa, dtopotltion of boildlngB, 99 ; 
Baptistery colamnfl, loi ; Baptistery, 
105, *io7; pulpit In Baptistery, 
279; Cathedral, 103, »eq^ iz8, 279; 
Oimpanile, 105; San Plero a 
Grado, 103; San Paolo, 105, *io6, 
107; San Micbele di Borgo, 980; 
San Pietro,98o ; Gampo Santo, 380 ; 
characteristics of style, 106; Pisau 
lozengfe, 106: Greek inflneuoe on, 
107 ; Pisan arcades, 107, 108 

Pistoia, 107 

Plan, concentric, zo> 90 ; prlmitJTO, 16 ; 
basilican, 17; early Byzantine, 43, 44 ; 
cmciform, 47; trlapaidal, 73, 73; 
qnatrcfoil, 73, 74 ; late Byzantine, 
49; Strzy^wski's classification of 
Byzantine churches, 81 ; French 
Gothic plan, 167, Appendix (F) ; 
Gothic aim in planning, 167, teg. ; 
plan of Laon, 198 : of Angers, 2x4 : of 
Onrleto, 2^7, 288 

Poissy, Cfanrch at, 151 

Poitiers haptistery, 120 

Pomposa, capital from, 39 

Portraits, early, 14; French Gothic, 
•239, ♦240, 241, 243 

Prefect, Book of the, 65 

Prtger^ 46 

Primitive chnrches, origin of, 16 

Procopiut^ 44, 47, 58, 86 

Proportion, Gothic, 168, §eq, 

Pnlpltum, 183 

QuickenU^ 198 

Kamsat, Abbey chnrch of, 86 

Ravello, bronze doors, 118 

BaTenna, 4: San Vitale, 39, *5i, 52, 
54; Basilica of Hercnles, 43; St. 
John the ETangelisf, 4s ; Tomb of 
GaUa Placidia, 52; Orthodox 
Baptistery, 52; Arian Baptistery, 
52; St. ApoUinare Nnovo, 52, 53, 
64; Mansolevm of Theodorie, 53; 
St. Apollinare in Classe, 56 ; Bishop's 
chair, 56, 62 

Reims, Cathedral of, exterior of, 139 ; 
flying bnttressee, 159; traceried 
windows, 170, •172 ; west front, 185 ; 
nervons energy of, 188 ; description, 
of, 206, teq. I senlptures of, 2i9» 228, 

229, 830, 232: tomb in, *S46; 
masons of, 247, 248 ; St, Bend, pava- 
ment of, 182; apse, 902; St. 
Nicaiae, masons of, 247 

Benalssance, 7 

JUnan, 140 

Bhenlsh School, 5, 124, teq. 

JRhodiM, C, 47 

Rimini, St. Andrea, 88, *89 

Bipon, Cathedral of, 160, 265 

Rlvanlx, Abbey of, 160^ 265 

Rivaira, 64 

Robert, A., Z31 

Roccella di Sqaillace, Charch of, *98 

Rochester, Castle of, 138; Cathedral 
of, west door, 219 ; open arcades, 267 

Rolduc, Abbey of, 126 

Roman Art, transformation of , 3, 9 ; 
Oriental inflnence npon,9 ; oonstmo- 
tion, 12 ; syncretic character of, 14 : 
influence abrogated In Constantly 
nople, 32 

Romanesque Art, 5, 73, 74 ; Oriental 
sources of, 80, 81, 84, 89, 90 : 
chAracteristios of, 80 : Italian 
Romanesque, 91, teq. ; German R^ 
126, §eq.; French Rn 129, teq.. 
Appendix (D); Spanish R., 129, 130, 
Appendix (Q : BngUsh R., 132, $eq.\ 
Romanesque an archlteoture fenda 
and monastic, 144 

Romance Art, 135, teq. 

Rome, Pantheon, 10, 30; Uinerva 
Mediea, xo, *xx,44; Constantlnean, 
Art in, 13 ; St. Peter's, X7, m?., 286 ; 
St. Paul's, outside the walls, 20 ; St. 
John Lateran, 20, X15 ; Sta. Sabina, 
20, *2X, 124 : Sta. Constantla, 22, 
*33,24,86; Sts. Cosmo and Damian, 
*30 : San Stefkuo, Rotunda, 3X ; Sta. 
Pndentiana, 24 ; St. Theodore, a6 ; 
Sta. Msria in Cosmedin, 61, xi6; 
St. Sabas, 63 ; Sta. Maria Antiqna, 
63; San Clemente, 63, X14: San 
PrasBcde, 64: Lateran Baptistery, 
64 ; Sta. Maria Maggiore, 1x4, 263 : 
Sta. Maris TrasteTerc, IZ4 

Rouen, Tower of, X47 ; Cathedral of 
description of, 21X, se?.; SDnlptures 
of, 23X : masons of, 253, teq, 

Rutkin^ John^ 93, S3X 

St. Deris, Abbey church of, 183, 184, 

192, 206, 2x8 
San Galgano, Abbey of, 276 



St. Gall, Honastery of. 89 n, 104, 127 

St. G«rmer, Church of, 151 

St. Germi^^ny dee Pres, 90, 124 

St. Gilles, church of, ai8 

St. Leu d'Eaeerent^ Church of, 162 

St. Omer, Cathedral of, 182 

St, Paul, ArUhtftne, 151, 198 

St. Qoentln, Church of, *i63, 164, 203, 

St. SaYln, Bomaoesque abhoy church 
of, 237 

8t. Sylvia^ 28, 29 

Santiago de PelLalva, Mooriah church 
ot 130 

Salanianca, Chapter- house at, iix 

Salisbury, Cathedral of, nare, 160; 
open arcade, 267 ; date, 268 

Salona, mosaic of baptistery, 36 

Salonica, Church of St. George, 50; 
Sta. Sophia, 53, 71 ; St. DemetiiuB, 66, 
•98, 107 ; St. Ellas, *72 

Salzenberg, 31, 44 

Scandaliou, castle of, 138 

Schhtmberger^ 72, 112 

SchuUz and Bamslty, 68, 69 ; Schultz, 

Soott, Sir Gilbert, 275 

Sculptare,Annenian, 73, 75, 76: Roman- 
esque English crosses, 216; Piaan 
baptistery, 105; Gothic, 215, seq,; 
aims of Gothic S., 2x5 ; schemes of, 
323, Mq. ; colour In, 232, seq. ; pulpits 
of N. Plsano, 279 ; Italian Gothic S., 
279,280; Florence campanile, 286; 
Orvioto Cathedral, 289 ; French S., 
Appendix (H); English S., Appendix 

SenliB, St. Frambonrg, 161 : Cathedral 
of, 184, 192, 194; sculptures of, 

Sens, Cathedral of, 199, 231 : Synod 
Hall, 199 

Sicily, Syracuse, Church of St. Foc&, 
82 ; Bagno di Mare, church of Sta. 
Croce Camerina, 87, *88 ; Monreale, 
Abbey of, 88, 117 ; Cofald, Cathedral 
of, 113, 1x7; Palermo, palace chapel, 
117 ; Martorana, 117 ; Stllo, Church 
of, 117; Sicilian Art under the 
Normans, 1x7 

Siena, Cathedral of, 276, aeq. \ pulpit, 
279 ; Palazzo Pubblico, 290 

Sinai, Convent of St. Catharine, 60 

Sion, Church at, 120 

Skripou, Church at, 68, ^112 

Solssons, Cathedral of, German infln* 
enoe, 148; towers, 151, *i52; oon- 
struction, X63; description of, aoz, 
202; St. Jean de Vigne, fagade, 


SouanetJe, Church at, •76, 77 

Spalato, Palace of Diocletian, 10, 16, 

Spanish Romanesque, X29 

Spanish Gothic, 270 

Spanish maaons, Tioda, X29 ; " Master 
Matthew,** 258 

Spires, 182, Appendix (G) 

Spoleto, church at, 29 

Strasbourg, Cathedral of, juhi, 183; 
energy of, 188; nare, 275; sculp- 
tures, 231, 232 ; mason of, 259 

Street, 11 x, X26, x66, 270 

StrzygowtlU, Dr^ 16, 20, 27, 29, 31, 34, 
40. 53. 64, 69, 78, 79, 8x, 83, 86, 87, 
89, X23 

Subiaco, paintings at, 293 

Supino, 103, 104 

Swainson, Harold, 28 

Swiss Gothic, 27 X 

Syria, 14, 32, 42 ; Syrian arch at St. 
Simeon's, *^ ; St. Simeon's Church, 
61 ; Rirenna work derired from 
Syrian, 53; Syrian source of Ro- 
manesque, 81 ; characteristics of 
School, 89 

Tabernacle work, X90 

Temple churches, 167, *i68 

Terouanne, apse of church at, 95 

Texier, 68, 78 

Theophiliu, X26, x8i, 249 

Thevet, 243, 251 

Todi, Town Hall at, 291 n 

Toledo, Mosque at, ixx ; Cathedral of, 

apsidal chapels, 166 ; stone roof, x8a; 

plan, 270 
Tombs, Early Christian, axo; Gothie, 

•2x8, ♦220, ♦224, •227, ♦233, 234; 

maaons* tombs, •243, •245, 247, 253, 

257* »<•«•. •296 

Torcello, Cathedral of, 92, 97 

Toron, Castle of, 138 

Tortoom, Eslick Yank Church, 76 

Toulouse, St. Semin, X30 

Toumay, Cathedral of, 148; apsidal 
transepts, 150; construction, X63: 
towers, X64 : shrine of St, Piat, 216 

Toumns, rault, X32 

Tours, St. Martin's, 89, 120 . 



Towers, lUTeniiA, 64 : Flormee Cam- 
panile, xoi: Pin Campanile, 105: 
St. Ambroglo, Milan, Campanile, 
109 : Maina Cathedral, ia8 ; origin 
of lantern towers, 81, 84; dJapooi- 
lion of toweia, 128, 150, 163. Ap- 
pendix (G) ; office of towen, 164 

Tracej-le-Val, Church ot 140 

Traeery-omament, 190 

Tranl, Chnreh at, 118 

Tr^Tes, Palace of, 62 

Treyiao, Lombard works at, 127 

Troyea, St. Urbaln at, 161 

Ubgel, Lombard work at, 127 

YALBirciEififBS, Cathedral of, 148, 

Van Ifiyck, Jan, 183, 241 
Vatari, 104, 135, 282, 286, 206 ^ 
Vancelles, Abb^ of, i66, •167, 248 
TanltB— Byzantine, Skripon, 66, Bln- 
blrklllflM, 81, Barkal, 81, St. Focft, 
Priolo, 82:— Tanlted hasiUcaa, 82; 
ogirtd vanlta, possible origin of, 
III, 113, 133, 134; ogiral In the 
East, III : o^val vaults non-eesen- 
tial to Gothic, 139 ; Sant* Ambro^o, 
Milan, X09; Moorish vaults, 11 z; 
Angevin vaults,! 13 ; stalactite vaults, 
1x3 ; Romanesque cross-vaults, 131 ; 
Norman oglval, 132; Durham vaults, 
132, Appendix (£); ogival vaults, 140, 

154. •15s. 'IS?. 158 

Venice : St. Mark's, capitals, 39 ; plan, 
48, 93, *94 ; mouldings, 96 ; Venetian 
Bytantino, 64, 92, 97 ; Venetian 
bronse-work, 100 

Venturis 109, 114 

Vtfielay, Cathedral of, ahaft-mooldinKa. 

182 ; choir, 203 
Vienna, bronie candlestick, 125 
niUmi, 99, 102, 280 

Villeneuve-lo-Vicomte, Churth at. •166 
VioUet-le^DHC, 58 1^ 164, 175, 191, 198, 

Viterbo, Church at, 288 
KifmriiM, 13 
VSge, 2x8, 2x9 
Vogde, de, 27, 58 

Wella, Cathedral of, 968 

West fronts, X84, X85 ; of Chartrea, 
205, of Orvleto, 289 

Wettlale, 206 

Westminster Abbey, a piece of thir- 
teenth-century history, x; flying; 
hnttrossee, XS9; old foundations, 
x68 ; chapter-house windows, 173 • 
Reims prototype of, 908, 269 ; when 
begun, 268; tombs in, 236, 283: 
painting of Kichard 11^ 243: in- 
scriptions to masons, 260 ; Cosmati 
work at, 283 

Wotslar, Cathedral of, X69 

Whittingham, O. D^ 139, 20X 

ITiW*. PriiTn X71, 367 

Wimpfen, Church at, X40 

Winchester, Cathedral of, 151 

Windows, Gothic, Tracery, 170, Wfl'., 
•171, •X72, •173, •174, •175, •176; 
glass, •177, •178, *X79, 180, •181, 
•236, '237; Keims windows, 207; 
Amiens windows, 209 ; masons' tools 
in Chartres window, ^259 

Wottmanfiy 25 x n 

ZuBTCH, Cathedral of, 273 

Printed by Ballantvitb, Hakion ^ Co. 
London ^ Edinburgh 

3 2044 038 385 9 

DUE FE2 .2) I93S 



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